Australia's history - Tourism Australia
Post-war immigration to Australia deals with migration to Australia since the end of World War II. Calwell stated in , to critics of mass immigration from non- British . Bathurst ( to ); Bradfield Park, now Lindfield · Chullora, a suburb of . Federal budget · Foreign relations · Government · Governor-General . After the war, there were strong political, commercial and industrial pressures to Australia's key economic relationship was with Britain, a reality expressed in In this way, overseas loans supported suburban expansion and. Splitters Creek is now a suburb on the western edge of Albury, better known Ben Quilty's oil painting of Troy Park, after Afghanistan Although the trauma and loss was profound in Britain, Australia and New Zealand.
These needed an elaborate infrastructure, especially good roads and reliable electricity. In this way, overseas loans supported suburban expansion and improved living standards in town and country, more than they underwrote productive capacity. If commodity prices collapsed and loan money dried up — as would happen in — the result was likely to be dire.
Post-war immigration to Australia - Wikipedia
Some of the investment, such as that in electricity, did support industrialisation, but governments also spent big on repatriation of World War I servicemen — in the form of pensions, healthcare and housing, and educational support. On the eve of the Second World War, well over a quarter of a million Australians were being supported by war pensions, almost as many as were being paid old age and invalid pensions.
Not only did they require spending on infrastructure such as roads and irrigation, they also led to bad debt owed to increasingly hard-pressed governments, as well as financial, social, physical, and psychological distress for settlers and their families.
The British government established an Empire Marketing Board to promote imperial goods to British consumers. Nonetheless, the British economy was sluggish in the aftermath of the war, and the growth of world trade slow during the s.
How the Great War shaped the foundations of Australia's future
Demand for wheat — which accounted for a fifth of Australian exports — was mainly flat during the s, but Australia benefited from rising British demand for meat, dairy goods, fruit, nuts, and wine. As a response to the depression of the early s, the British Empire sought by preferential arrangements to maximise trade within it. While the war itself had not been an engine of industrialisation, it had diversified Australian production as enterprises filled gaps left by the disruption of world trade and shipping shortages.
The war boosted the chemicals industry, zinc refining, and steel production; these areas formed the foundation of interwar industrialisation. Manufacturing still only represented 11 percent of gross domestic product inbut it expanded rapidly until aboutwhen over-production of consumer goods began to create difficulties.
By manufacturing had grown to 18 percent of GDP. The growing American dominance of the global cinema industry, and the enormous enthusiasm of Australian audiences for the Hollywood product, squeezed the local industry. Automatic cost-of-living adjustments were introduced to respond to price increases in Unemployment, which had never dipped below seven percent fromalso climbed in the late s. Employers looked to wage rates in their efforts to cut costs, and they found an ally in the federal government.
Australia, with its exposure to international fluctuations in trade and investment, would have experienced a depression irrespective of the nature of its development in the s. But war debts and post-war borrowing greatly increased its vulnerability to external shocks, such as the collapse of commodity prices and the virtual cessation of international lending. When Australia was indeed hit by these problems init experienced a catastrophic balance of payments problem and strong pressure from creditors.
The government reduced pensions and spending and cut interest rates for local bondholders — but it did not default on its overseas debts. The federal Arbitration Court, which determined conditions for many Australian workers, cut wages by 10 percent in addition to automatic adjustments to account for deflation, although some tribunals in the states increased wage rates.
To promote industrialisation and absorb the unemployed, who probably accounted for a quarter of the workforce during the worst period of the depression aroundthe government encouraged British and foreign multinational firms to set up operations in Australia, behind its high tariff wall.
Local manufacturing contributed to helping Australia out of its balance of payments problems by reducing dependence on imports. It would take another world war to usher in a new prosperity.
In contrast with World War I, Australia in managed to avoid excessive overseas debt, partly through financing the war via taxation and bonds sold locally.
It also benefited from its greater level of industrialisation, which placed it in a strong position to supply its own forces and eventually, the Americans as well. Australia had developed defence industries between the wars, motivated in part by the sense of isolation and vulnerability it had experienced during World War I.
The War at Home. South Melbournep. Australia and the Great Depression. A Study of Economic Development and Policy in the s and s: Sydney , p. Hughes and the Treaty of Versailles,in: A Pound of Flesh: In Australia, as John Hirst has written: Gallipoli freed Australia from the self-doubt about whether it had the mettle to be a proper nation.
So, in Australia, the experience of war became shorthand for nationhood. In New Zealand, it marked the beginning of a long journey to even fuller independence. It is an ancient notion that equates battle and blood with independence and freedom; that there is life in death. The Great War did not make Australia — that had been relatively cerebral activity, notwithstanding the conflict of settlement, which reached its conclusion on January 1,when the colonies federated into a nation.
The nation began as penal colonies, prosecuted battles of settlement, welcomed people from many lands and crafted a constitution. But like many adolescents it was conflicted, as Holbrook argues: The Great War was not even the first foreign war that Australians fought in alongside Britain — that was in South Africa.
But as the legend of Breaker Morant has captured, there were important differences in attitude between Australia and Britain that came to the fore in foreign battles. An anti-conscription leaflet from the referenda era. AWM Many historians have argued that the lingering feeling of illegitimacy, of having a chip on the shoulder that needed to be avenged, helped fuel the idea that participation in the Great War was a coming of age.
Eagerness to participate was not universally shared. This is illustrated most powerfully in the failure of two referenda to introduce conscription. This was another important mark of an independent nation, of a place where people had the right to make their own decisions rather than being the property of the state.
So those of Irish heritage expressed anti-British sentiment, those of German descent were regarded suspiciously, and Indigenous Australians joined the fight. Afterwards, the tragedy of loss and grief was palpable. And then, in little more than a generation, another war began which layered trauma on catastrophe, left the air full of human smoke, changed global geopolitics and renamed the Great War, World War One.
- History of Australia since 1945
- Post-war immigration to Australia
- Economic history of Australia
In an enduring sense, it was the Second World War that really changed the world. It consolidated the American Century, defined in part by conflict with the Soviet Republic and its empire; triggered the end of colonialism and its multi-faceted implications; created space for the assertion of international law; and provided the framework for the remarkable transformations of the past seven decades. How Australia changed Undoubtedly, the wars of the 20th century shaped — arguably even made — modern Australia.
But this was not because of an ancient blood sacrifice in distant lands or even the closer strategic battles that followed. It was a product of the responses, realignments and decisions that followed. Every country has its most symbolic year from each of the world wars, and can trace the consequences of the bloodletting that accompanied the global realignment of the last century.
In Australia this can be measured in many ways, but three major legacies stand out: It was in the aftermath of these wars that Australia found its voice in international forums — at Versailles and in the formation of both the League of Nations and United Nations. AWM After excluding the Chinese, deporting German residents and treating the first Australians as subhuman a century ago, Australia slowly let down the gangplank and after the Second World War began again to welcome large numbers of people from all around the world.
While the legal separation from Britain took much longer to achieve — and is still a work in progress — the reaction to the knighting of Prince Philip on Australia Day,suggests this is a project nearing completion. At a more prosaic level, one of the greatest media empires the world has ever known can trace its antecedents to the wartime reporting and political dealmaking of Sir Keith Murdoch.
Fall of Singapore anniversary: How a military defeat changed Australia
And it was the wartime experiences of Gough Whitlam that shaped his political agenda that was implemented three decades later, and still upholds the foundations of contemporary Australia.
Not just an intellectual exercise It is striking that is the centenary of the Gallipoli offensive, the 70th anniversary of end of the Second World War in the Pacific, and the 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War. This is a good time to reflect not only on the actions of those wars, but on their consequences and their enduring legacies.
The battles are important, but the lessons to be learnt in their aftermath need to be interrogated to explain how we got where we are. This is essentially an intellectual exercise. Australians generally shy away from such activity, preferring celebration, commemoration and consumption.