Comparison Table between Christianity, Islam and Judaism
Jul 3, A comparison of the belief systems of the Christian, Muslim and Jewish religions. Apr 10, Compare Christianity and Judaism. Christianity has a close relationship with Judaism, both historically and theologically. Jesus, his disciples. The essential difference between Jews and Christians is that Christians accept Judaism originates as a result of the covenantal relationship between God and.
But it is being issued today, at a particular point in time and under a particular set of historical and social circumstances. These suggest a special relationship between Judaism and Christianity. Affirmation of a special relationship need not be based on theological data only.
While the continuity of scripture and recognition of the same God are primary candidates, there are other ways in which such a relationship may be singled out. I surmise that, to a certain extent, such criteria also played into the recent statement by Orthodox rabbis. Jews and Christians are culturally closer to each other, at least in the Western world, than to other groups. Part of the cultural closeness is the very readiness to advance in mutual recognition and in improving inter-group relations.
These factors are no less legitimate as data for making the case for a special relationship than theological criteria. One could argue that they do not establish a special relationship between Judaism and Christianity, but only between Christians and Jews, but that is certainly also something that is worth affirming and for which a case must be made.
The contingency of any case for special relationship raises the question not only of when the argument can be made but also when it becomes unravelled. The growing prominence of Islam in the interreligious conversation in the West is one reason for developing alternative models.
Political circumstances in Israel might be another. Some Protestant groups may be seen as downplaying their relationship with Judaism as a consequence of political realities. Given that special relationship is a case to be argued for, rather than a given, this would make sense at face value. If a case can be made, it can equally be argued against, on some ground or another.
There is room to query, however, what are the criteria upon which the argument for or against a special relationship among religions should be made. Historical and phenomenological data such as scriptural or ritual continuity would also contribute to a theoretical argument. These criteria relate to the fundamental structures of the religion and its self-understanding, and transcend the particulars of a historical reality in a specific point in time.
Therefore, I do not believe such time-specific considerations should play a major role in evaluating special relationship. In short, having come as far as we have in Jewish-Christian relations, it seems to me wrong to allow the case to be influenced by political considerations.
In viewing the recent arguments put forth by the Vatican and by Orthodox rabbis, it seems that fundamental criteria are upheld. Affirmation of the same God leads to common action in the world, thereby affirming, establishing and reinforcing a special relationship. Even if historically this special relationship did not exist, it is constructed by means of the argument and can be reinforced through common action, leading to further expression through education and other means of deepening its hold.
The criteria seem to me valid, their application appropriate and their promise deserves the choice to refer to the relationship as a special relationship.
In some way, we must remember, all relationships are special and, other than natural family relations, they all have to be constructed. With that awareness we are called not only to recognize or affirm the special relationship now emerging between Jews and Christians — possibly even between Judaism and Christianity — but to contribute to its formation, strength and to the fruits it has to bring to the world.
In those three there is one, and in that one there are three; the one God is indivisible, while the three persons are distinct and unconfused, God the FatherGod the Sonand God the Holy Spirit. It teaches that God became especially immanent in physical form through the Incarnation of God the Son who was born as Jesus of Nazarethwho is believed to be at once fully God and fully human. There are denominations self-describing as Christian who question one or more of these doctrines, however, see Nontrinitarianism.
By contrast, Judaism sees God as a single entityand views trinitarianism as both incomprehensible and a violation of the Bible's teaching that God is one.
It rejects the notion that Jesus or any other object or living being could be 'God', that God could have a literal 'son' in physical form or is divisible in any way, or that God could be made to be joined to the material world in such fashion. Although Judaism provides Jews with a word to label God's transcendence Ein Sofwithout end and immanence Shekhinahin-dwellingthese are merely human words to describe two ways of experiencing God; God is one and indivisible.
Shituf A minority Jewish view, which appears in some[ which? This theology is referred to in Hebrew as Shituf literally "partnership" or "association". Although worship of a trinity is considered to be not different from any other form of idolatry for Jews, it may be an acceptable belief for non-Jews according to the ruling of some Rabbinic authorities[ who?
Right action[ edit ] Faith versus good deeds[ edit ] This section does not cite any sources. November See also: Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification and Biblical law in Christianity Judaism teaches that the purpose of the Torah is to teach us how to act correctly.
God's existence is a given in Judaism, and not something that most authorities see as a matter of required belief. Although some authorities[ who? The quintessential verbal expression of Judaism is the Shema Yisraelthe statement that the God of the Bible is their God, and that this God is unique and one. The quintessential physical expression of Judaism is behaving in accordance with the Mitzvot the commandments specified in the Torahand thus live one's life in God's ways.
Thus fundamentally in Judaism, one is enjoined to bring holiness into life with the guidance of God's lawsrather than removing oneself from life to be holy.
Christianity and Judaism - Wikipedia
Much of Christianity also teaches that God wants people to perform good worksbut all branches hold that good works alone will not lead to salvation, which is called Legalismthe exception being dual-covenant theology. The Jewish prayer book is called the siddur. Sin We inherit a sinful nature through our common ancestor Adam, who rebelled against God.
Jesus Christ atoned for our sins through his death on the Cross Romans 5: There is no concept of original sin, nor vicarious atonement. All Humans are born sinless, but human weakness leads to sin.
Judaism rejects the doctrine of original sin. Atonement for sins commited is made through seeking forgiveness from God in prayer and repentance.
Compare Christianity and Judaism
In addition, the day of atonement Yom Kippur is set aside specially for this purpose. Salvation By grace through faith in Jesus Christ Ephesians 2: Through good works, prayers and the grace of God. There is no parallel to the Christian view of substitutionary atonement. Hell A place of everlasting punishment for the unrighteous Matthew There is no crossover between Heaven and Hell. A place of torment and fire Quran In Islam, Hell is known as Jahannam.
Jahannam has several levels and a person may not necessarily spend eternity there. Tradtionally, there is the concept of Gehinnom or Gehenna - those who die in sin may suffer temporary punishment, but certain sins merit eternal punishment.