Commensalism and mutualism relationship images

Examples of Commensalism for a Better Understanding of the Concept

commensalism and mutualism relationship images

A mutualistic relationship is when two organisms of different species "work together," each benefiting from the relationship. One example of a mutualistic. Symbiosis comes from two Greek words that mean "with" and "living." It describes a close relationship between two organisms from different species. Get the definition of commensalism, with examples and explanations of the different types of relationships Jody Watt / Getty Images Mutualism - Mutualism is a relationship in which two organisms benefit from each other.

Amensalism is an asymmetric interaction where one species is harmed or killed by the other, and one is unaffected by the other. Competition is where a larger or stronger organism deprives a smaller or weaker one from a resource.

Antagonism occurs when one organism is damaged or killed by another through a chemical secretion. An example of competition is a sapling growing under the shadow of a mature tree. The mature tree can rob the sapling of necessary sunlight and, if the mature tree is very large, it can take up rainwater and deplete soil nutrients. Throughout the process, the mature tree is unaffected by the sapling. Indeed, if the sapling dies, the mature tree gains nutrients from the decaying sapling.

An example of antagonism is Juglans nigra black walnutsecreting juglone, a substance which destroys many herbaceous plants within its root zone. Whilst the presence of the grass causes negligible detrimental effects to the animal's hoof, the grass suffers from being crushed. Whilst the presence of the weevil has almost no influence on food availability, the presence of ibex has an enormous detrimental effect on weevil numbers, as they consume significant quantities of plant matter and incidentally ingest the weevils upon it.

Cleaning symbiosis Cleaning symbiosis is an association between individuals of two species, where one the cleaner removes and eats parasites and other materials from the surface of the other the client.

commensalism and mutualism relationship images

Cleaning symbiosis is well-known among marine fish, where some small species of cleaner fishnotably wrasses but also species in other genera, are specialised to feed almost exclusively by cleaning larger fish and other marine animals. However, here are some of the widely accepted examples of commensalism found in nature.

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Examples of Commensalism Cattle Egrets and Livestock One of the popular examples of commensalism is the relationship between cattle egrets and livestock.

The cattle egret is a common species of heron that is found in most regions of the world, and is mostly seen moving along with herds of cattle.

commensalism and mutualism relationship images

This bird moves about in the pastures, and follows livestock such as cattle and horses. The cattle egret eats up the insects hiding under vegetation close to the grounds, which get stirred up when the cattle walk through them.

Orchids Growing on Branches of Trees Orchids belong to a family of flowering plants that form a commensal relationship with the trees. It is a well-known epiphytic plant that grows on the branches or trunks of other trees.

Orchids are usually found in dense tropical forests.

commensalism and mutualism relationship images

They form their base of attachment on the branches of trees, and benefit by getting adequate sunlight and nutrition that flows down the branches. The orchids do not grow to a large size, and thus the host tree is not harmed in any way.

Remora Fish and Sharks The remora, also called suckerfish, belongs to a family of ray-finned fish. It is a small fish growing up to a size of 1 to 3 feet. The remora forms a special relationship with sharks and other sea organisms like whales and turtles.

Examples of Commensalism for a Better Understanding of the Concept

It has special suckers attached to its fins. It attaches itself to the bodies of sharks, and uses the shark for transportation as well as protection from its predators. It also eats up the scraps of food that are left over when the shark eats its prey.

commensalism and mutualism relationship images

Pseudoscorpions and Beetles Pseudoscorpions are scorpion-like insects that usually grow to less than one centimeter in length. They are different from other types of scorpions in the way that they do not have stingers. Some species of the pseudoscorpions hide themselves under the wing covers of large insects like beetles.

This gives them protection from their predators, and also provides them a means of transportation over a larger area. Because of its small size and lack of sting, it does not harm the beetle in any way. Monarch Butterfly and Milkweed The Monarch butterfly is a well-known type of butterfly found commonly in the North American region. At the larval stage, it forms a commensal relationship with certain species of milkweeds.

The milkweeds contain a poisonous chemical known as cardiac glycoside, which is harmful to almost all vertebrates. The Monarch stores these poisonous chemicals in its body throughout its lifespan.

When a bird eats a Monarch butterfly, it finds it distasteful, and gets sick. Thus, they avoid eating it. Birds Following Army Ants Many birds form a commensal relationship with some species of ants like the army ants.