Fourteen Points - New World Encyclopedia
Apr 20, The Fourteen Points were listed in a speech delivered by President Peace Conference in and documented in the Treaty of Versailles. . Cabot Lodge, Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Guide to the archives of the League of Nations, / United Nations Library, Nov 13, Guiding Questions. Did the Versailles Treaty represent the fulfillment of Wilson's Fourteen Points, or their betrayal?. A summary of Fighting for Peace: in 's Woodrow Wilson. Known as the Fourteen Points Speech because it outlined the fourteen elements went to Europe to attend the peace conference, despite the protests and advice for his political.
- The Fourteen Points
- The Treaty of Versailles
Redrawing of Balkan boundaries. Rumania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored; Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea; and the relations of the several Balkan states to one another determined by friendly counsel along historically established lines of allegiance and nationality; and international guarantees of the political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the several Balkan states should be entered into.
The Turkish portions of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development, and the Dardanelles should be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under international guarantees.
Establishment of an independent Poland.Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points I THE GREAT WAR WEEK 181
An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea, and whose political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant. The last of the Fourteen Points was another broad issue and the particular favorite of Wilson: A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.
These ideas were distributed worldwide by government propagandists working for George Creel in the American Committee on Public Information.
Allied governments paid lip service to the Fourteen Points while the fighting continued.
A Venn Diagram: 14 Points and the Treaty of Versailles by Kate Harris on Prezi
Those nations needed American financial might to assist in their rebuilding after the war and did not want to risk offending Wilson. There was some fear in Europe the United States might seek a separate peace with Germany, freeing that nation to continue the fight without the presence of American forces. Both had felt the impact of German militarism much more deeply than the United States and were committed to taking steps that they felt would preclude further German aggression.
The Allies agreed to accept the Fourteen Points as the basis for the coming peace negotiations if Wilson would agree to two reservations: The delegates would not be committed to accepting a provision guaranteeing freedom of the seas Point 2 — a measure demanded by Britain. The French insisted that the provision having to do with German evacuation from French territory Point 8 be interpreted to allow for the collection of compensation reparations for civilian damages incurred in the war.
The Fourteen Points
Wilson accepted these reservations and forwarded the peace plan to the German government on November 5. To Wilson, European empires were the antithesis of democracy; people have the right to determine who governs them and empires had taken away that right.
The goal of point five was to dismantle European empires and to create new states organized along national-cultural lines. Points six to thirteen were specific steps for putting point five into action; for example, the monolith Austro-Hungarian Empire would be dismantled and out of it the nations of Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakiaand parts of Yugoslavia would be created, each new nation sharing a common language, customs, and culture.
The realization of this point was the League of Nations. The League was to create a system of collective security that monitored world peace. Its armies were defeated and its people were starving, while the rumblings of German communists grew louder in the cities. Fearing both revolution at home and total collapse at the front, the government requested an armistice using the Fourteen Points as its foundation.
The new government hoped that the gesture would ingratiate Germany with Wilson, and make him an ally of the new republic in the forthcoming peace negotiations. Wilson gives us the Fourteen Points. To ensure the realization of his association of nations, Wilson had to betray self-determination and its associated points.
Clemenceau also wanted to protect secret treaties and impose naval blockades around Germany so that France could control trade imported to and exported from the defeated country.
Territorially, France felt that Germany should be punished. They demanded the return of Alsace-Lorraine to France, but also the demilitarization of the Rhineland to act as a buffer zone against future attacks. British response The British public wanted to punish Germany in a similar fashion to the French for her apparent sole responsibility for the outbreak of the war, and had been promised such a treaty in the election that Lloyd George had won.
Lastly, like Clemenceau, he supported upholding secret treaties and the idea of a naval blockade. Despite their own national interests that were in opposition to the fourteen points, both France and Britain did share some of Wilson's concerns.
Lloyd George was aware of the potential trouble that could come from an embittered Germany, and he felt that a less harsh treaty that did not engender vengeance would be better at preserving peace in the long run. Furthermore, Britain wanted to maintain the 'Balance of Power' — no country within Europe being allowed to become a lot more powerful than the others. If France's wishes were carried out, then not only would Germany be crippled, but France would soon become the main superpower, and so disrupt the Balance of Power in two ways.
The League of Nations This mixture of mutual interests versus national interest ultimately meant that Wilson was forced to compromise on many of his ideals to ensure that his most important point, the establishment of the League of Nationswas accepted. In the end, the Treaty of Versailles went far beyond the proposals in the Fourteen Points. The resulting bitterness in Germany is generally acknowledged as creating the conditions for the disintegration of the Weimar Republic and the rise of fascism in the s.
Nevertheless, Wilson was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in for his peace-making efforts. He also inspired independence movements around the world, including the March 1st Movement in Korea.
However, history shows that, despite the idealism, the post-war reconstruction of Europe adopted only four of the points completely. Also, the United States Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, making it invalid in the United States and effectively undermining the nascent League of Nations envisioned by Wilson.
He led a successful campaign to undermine the treaty's ratification. It has also been said that Wilson himself was the second-largest obstacle, primarily because he refused to support the treaty with any of the alterations proposed by the United States Senate. The result was the ineffectiveness of the League of Nations, and its ultimate demise.