Kublai Khan | Biography, Accomplishments, & Facts | artsocial.info
Start studying The Mongols Quiz. Learn vocabulary Empire After Genghis Khan . split into four Kublai Khan/ relationship to Genghis/ Method of rule in China. Here's the 4th quiz in the SKM Know Your East Asian History series.:D Ten questions 9) What's Batu's relationship to Genghis Khan? Zhu Yuan-zhang was the last Yuan emperor, but do you mean KublaiKhan? Ain't she. Read and learn for free about the following article: Marco Polo. they had an audience with the most powerful ruler of the day, Kublai Khan, grandson of the founding emperor, Genghis Khan. . Practice: Quiz: Exploration & Interconnection.
Like the Mongols, they were exempt from taxation and enjoyed preferential use of the official post roads and services.
The expenses of state and the support of the privileged bore heavily on those two classes. Peasants were brought in as labourers, to the neglect of their farms. Food supplies in the north were inadequate for the new labour force and the unproductive Mongols, and large quantities had to be brought by sea and, when the sea routes proved insecure, along the Grand Canal.
The repair and extension of the canal also demanded much labour. Kublai, in common with other Mongol rulers, was much preoccupied with religion. His reign was a time of toleration for rival religions and of economic privilege for the favoured religions. Clerics and their communities were exempted from taxation, and Buddhist temples especially were granted generous donations of land and of peasants for their upkeep.
Marco Polo (article) | Khan Academy
The arrogance of the many Tibetan lamaswho enjoyed a special status in Yuan China, was particularly detested by the Chinese.
Such a discriminatory social policy was eventually bound to arouse strong resentment.Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan, Dr. Morris Rossabi
Trade was mainly carried on in the interests of a privileged foreign merchant class, not those of the community at large. The common people of China were becoming progressively poorer.
The old examination system, which admitted to the civil service only men with a proper knowledge of Confucian philosophy, had lapsed, and customary restraints on absolutism and arbitrary rule, such as would have been imposed by the censorate a body that scrutinized the conduct of officials and a professional public service, were lacking.
Mongol History Quiz!
The Chinese literati were excluded from public office and responsibility. The extravagant policies that Kublai had countenanced and the financial ineptitude of later Mongol emperors provoked, in the 14th century, the economically motivated uprisings that brought the dynasty down. The supply of copper was too small to form a metal currency in a period of expanding trade, and in any case large quantities were diverted to the temples to be made into statues and other cult objects.
Legacy Though Kublai was celebrated above all as a Chinese emperor, he also helped to form the political traditions of his own Mongol people.
That theory was turned to practical account on more than one occasion in the subsequent history of Mongolia and, for example, underlay the constitution of the theocratic monarchy proclaimed inwhen Mongolia recovered its independence from China.
The only personal account of him is by Marco Poloand that work is more of a panegyric than a sober appraisal. Polo presents Kublai as the ideal of a universal sovereign. Yet he does not overlook his human weaknesses—above all, an indulgence in feasting and hunting, a complicated and expensive sexual life, a failure to exercise proper supervision over his subordinates, and occasional outbursts of cruelty.
Even a man of his energy, willpower, and political insight—ruling with the advantage of absolutism unfettered by the old bureaucratic apparatus of China—could not resolve the contradictions inherent in his situation. As it turned out, he became a Chinese emperor of the traditional type. Few texts have provoked more controversy than The Travels of Marco Polo. The authorship is not clear — is it Polo or Rusticello? Sometimes the text is in the first-person voice, sometimes in the third-person.
Polo proved an engaging storyteller. He found Mongolian customs fascinating and reported them enthusiastically, such as the use of paper for money and the burning of coal for heat see excerpts below. Paper money had been utilized in China for several hundred years, and coal had been burned in parts of China since the beginning of agriculture. Books were widely available there because they were printed with moveable type made of wood, clay, or tin.
- Kublai Khan
- What was the relationship between Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan?
Moveable type was missing in Europe untilwhen Johannes Gutenberg, a German printer, invented it there. When Christopher Columbus set sail on August 3,hoping to find a route by sea to China, he carried with him a heavily annotated copy of The Travels of Marco Polo, expecting it to be useful.
The travels of Marco Polo. Click here for a larger version. From The Travels of Marco Polo: He causes bark to be stripped from those mulberry-trees the leaves of which are used for feeding silk-worms, and takes from it that thin inner ring which lies between the coarser bark and the wood of the tree. This being steeped, and afterwards pounded in a mortar, until reduced to a pulp, is made into paper, resembling that which is made from cotton, but quite black.
When ready for use, he has it cut into pieces of money of different sizes, nearly square, but somewhat longer than they are wide The coinage of this paper money is authenticated with as much form and ceremony as if it were actually of pure gold or silver; for to each note a number of officers, specially appointed, not only subscribe their names, but affix their signets also; and when this has been regularly done by the whole of them, the principal officer, deputed by his majesty, having dipped into vermilion the royal seal committed to his custody, stamps with it the piece of paper, so that the form of the seal tinged with the vermilion remains impressed upon it, by which it receives full authenticity as current money, and the act of counterfeiting it is punished as a capital offence.
All his subjects receive it without hesitation, because wherever their business may call them, they can dispose of it again in the purchase of merchandise they may have occasion for; such as pearls, jewels, gold, or silver.
With it, in short, every article may be procured This beverage, or wine as it may be termed, is so good and well flavoured that they do not wish for better. Founder of the Yuan Dynasty of China Biography: His father was Tolui, the youngest of Genghis Khan's favorite four sons.
Growing up, Kublai traveled with his family while his grandfather Genghis conquered China and the Muslim nations to the west. He learned to ride horses and shoot a bow and arrow. He lived in a round tent called a yurt. Kublai was very interested in the culture of the Chinese. He studied the philosophies of Ancient China such as Confucianism and Buddhism.
Mongke promoted Kublai to the ruler of Northern China. Kublai did a good job managing the large territory and a few years later his brother asked him to attack and conquer southern China and the Song Dynasty. While leading his army against the Song, Kublai found out that his brother Mongke had died.
Kublai agreed to a peace treaty with the Song where the Song would pay him tribute each year and then returned back north. When Kublai returned to the north he found out that his brother had already laid claim to the title.