Media in Pakistan: A Glance at the Past. Media Groups. 15 .. the relationship between media and government, which tend to affect. Press-Government Relations in. Structural-Functionalist Perspective: A Case of Pakistan under General Zia (from to ). Zafar Iqbal. Assistant Professor. Extracts from Ayesha Siddiqa's Military Inc.: Inside Pakistan's Military Economy. has added a chapter on the military and its relations with the media in Pakistan. The result was that, from –10, 89 private television channels were The government also laid out an initial control mechanism in the form.
While there have been many areas of agreement and cooperation, deep mistrust remains between the two, who rarely get opportunities to engage with each other and thus rely on media for their information and viewpoints.
Unresolved issues continue to pose challenges for both countries.
Government-media relations discussed
This exchange offers U. All participants meet at the East-West Center in Hawaii before and after their study tours for dialogues focused on sensitive issues between the two countries; preconceived attitudes among the public and media in the United States and Pakistan; new perspectives gained through their study tours; and how media coverage between the two countries can be improved. Ten Pakistani journalists will travel to the United States and ten U.
This East-West Center program is funded by a grant from the U. Embassy Islamabad Public Affairs Section. The program provides journalists with valuable new perspectives and insights on this critically important relationship, a wealth of contacts and resources for future reporting, and friendships with professional colleagues in the other country upon whom to draw throughout their careers. Journalists will study each other's cultures as they are immersed in newsrooms in each country.
Government-media relations discussed -Pakistan Press Foundation (PPF)
The program will include events and opportunities to experience U. Representatives from the U. Pakistanis will receive four-week internships at U. Participants on both sides will have opportunities to report on their experiences in each country, which will help to educate their audiences and dispel myths and misconceptions that people carry in each country about residents of the other. The CEJ serves as a hub for the professional development, training and networking of Pakistani journalists and media professionals from all parts of the country.
A partnership with Northwestern University's Medill School of Journalism and the Institute of Business Administration IBA aims to provide targeted, practical trainings for Pakistani journalists in print, broadcast, and digital media.
Courses will be co-instructed by faculty from the Medill School, accomplished newsroom managers, editors and reporters from the United States, and prominent media professionals from Pakistan. History[ edit ] The first step in introducing media laws in the country was done by the then military ruler and President Ayub Khan who promulgated the Press and Publication Ordinance PPO in The law empowered the authorities to confiscate newspapers, close down news providers, and arrest journalists.
Using these laws, Ayub Khan nationalised large parts of the press and took over one of the two largest news agencies. The other agencies was pushed into severe crisis and had to seek financial support from the government. Pakistani Radio and Televisionwhich was established in was also brought under the strict control of the government.
According to these new amendments, the publisher would be liable and prosecuted if a story was not to the liking of the administration even if it was factual and of national interest. These amendments were used to promote Haq's Islamist leanings and demonstrated the alliance between the military and religions leaders.
Censorship during the Zia years was direct, concrete and dictatorial. Newspapers were scrutinised; critical or undesired sections of an article censored. In the wake of Zia-ul-Haq's sudden death and the return of democracy, the way was paved to abate the draconian media laws through a revision of media legislation called the Revised PPO RPPO.
Fromunder General Pervez Musharrafthe Pakistani media faced a decisive development that would lead to a boom in Pakistani electronic media and paved the way to it gaining political clout. New liberal media laws broke the state's monopoly on the electronic media. TV broadcasting and FM radio licenses were issued to private media outlets. The military's motivation for liberalising media licensing was based on an assumption that the Pakistani media could be used to strengthen national security and counter any perceived threats from India.
What prompted this shift was the military's experience during the two past confrontations with India. One was the Kargil War and the other was the hijacking of the India Airliner by militants. In both these instances, the Pakistani military was left with no options to reciprocate because its electronic media were inferior to that of the Indian media. Better electronic media capacity was needed in the future and thus the market for electronic media was liberalised. The justification was just as much a desire to counter the Indian media poweras it was a wish to set the media "free" with the rights that electronic media had in liberal, open societies.
The military thought it could still control the media and harness it if it strayed from what the regime believed was in the national interest - and in accordance with its own political agenda. Thus, following Musharraf's military takeover on October 12,he suspended Pakistan's constitution and assumed the additional title of Chief Executive.
He appointed an eight-member National Security Council to function as the supreme governing body of Pakistan. He dissolved both the Senate and the National Assembly.
Newspaper editors also urged that the Freedom of Information Act and the amended Registration of Printing Press and Publication Ordinance be promulgated by the government, along with the Press Council Ordinance.
The International Press Institute IPI identified major concerns including the desire to create a quasi-judicial body without proper procedures in place to provide fairness and equity. The IPI also expressed reservations about the proposed composition, its financing, and the terminology used in describing the ethical code, and made a number of recommendations for improving the draft ordinance.
In a joint statement issued on the eve of World Press Freedom Day, leaders of the two organizations said they regretted that the Press and Publication Ordinance against which the journalists' community had striven for almost two decades had once again been revived and newspapers were being closed down under the same black law. The statement said fresh attempts in the shape of the Press Council were being framed by Musharraf's government to silence the voice of the print media in the country.
They said the PFUJ and APNEC had already rejected the idea of setting up the council and that news people were still being subjected to different pressure tactics, including threats to their lives.
They demanded that the government repeal more than 16 black laws, including the Press and Publication Ordinance, and to insure implementation of the labor laws by ending exploitation of the working journalists and newspaper workers.
How Pakistan's Military Manages the Media
They also called for enforcing the Freedom of Information Act to ensure easy access to information. The only other press laws in effect while the current proposed press laws are under review are general ones prohibiting publication of obscene material, inciting religious, parochial, or ethnic provocations, and anti-defamation provisions.
In practice, registering a new publication is a simple administrative act and is not subjected to political or government scrutiny.
There are no registration or licensing processes for journalists. New newspapers and presses are required to register themselves with the local administration. Censorship Censorship pervades journalism history in Pakistan; certainly, the blackest censorship period came during General Zia's year military regime. Almost all journalists mention the press advice system as one of the most insidious means of censorship. It specified that whoever "contravenes any provision of this regulation shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment which may extend to ten years, and shall be liable to fine or stripes [lashes] not to exceed twenty-five.
He used intelligence operatives to infiltrate newsrooms and press unions. With so many spies doubling as reporters, and journalists moonlighting as government agents, trust became difficult for all. APP is both the Govern-ment's own news agency and the official carrier of international wire service stories to the local media. Foreign books must pass government censors before being reprinted. Books and magazines may be imported freely, but are likewise subject to censorship for objectionable sexual or religious content.
English language publications have not been affected by the direct proscription of books and magazines promulgated by the Chief Commissioner in Islamabad, who banned five Sindhi-language publications in the second half of for "objectionable material against Pakistan" i.
State-Press Relations The press has traditionally experienced the often harsh effects of Pakistan's political instability. When partition resulted in the establishment of Pakistan as an independent homeland for the Muslims, the Muslim League as a political party struggled with the tasks of leading the new country into stable statehood.
Factionalism, however, quickly contributed to instability, internal strife, incompetence, and corruption. The press at this point was largely a remnant of the Moslem press present during the struggle for independence, and it was seen as aggravating the problems being faced by keeping these issues out in front of the people.
Thus, the government began its long history of attempting to control the press through arrests, the banning of certain publications, and other punitive measures. Between andpolitical turbulence intensified with the assassination of the country's first prime minister, Quaid-i-Millat Liaquat Ali Khan, in and the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly in However, bythe Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan was enforced; it contained an article specifically devoted to freedom of speech.
The Constitution lasted less than three years when it was abrogated by the imposition of martial law in October A new enforcement of the constitution in occurred with the removal of martial law by President Ayub Khan.
Although this constitution continued the recognition of an initial concept of freedom of expression, in reality, a military ruler imposed the constitution, and it contained no separate chapter on fundamental rights. The press and the public commented on the implications of living under a constitution devoid of mention of such basic rights, which resulted in Constitutional Amendment No.
However, injust one year after the adoption of the new constitution, the Press and Publications Ordinance PPO came into being. This ordinance contained the harshest of laws curtailing freedom of expression and the progressive development of the media and leading to the March relinquishing of power by President Ayub Khan to General Yahya Khan who imposed martial law. General Khan relied heavily on one of the measures of this ordinance, the system of "press advice" given out by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting in order to avoid publication of news and reports deemed unsuitable for public consumption.
It was also during this period that newspapers and magazines known for their independent and progressive views were first taken over by the government. Eventually the National Press Trust, created intook over these journals and acted as a front to control a section of the press. On the outside, the aim was to consolidate into one law different provisions for "preventive detention of persons" and "control of persons and publications for reasons connected with the maintenance of public order.
With amendments in andthis law empowered the government to ban the printing of publications, to enter and search premises, and to prohibit import of newspapers, among other measures. These powers have been used by succeeding governments right up until the government of Musharraf.
Inthe government also took over the principal news agency of the country, the APP, arguing that "administrative and financial breakdown" justified such a move. Instead of allowing private enterprise to improve the quality of the news agency, the government saw this as an opportunity to control what news would be supplied to the print media, to radio, and to the outside world. In spite of such repressive times, the press took a bold stand in providing alternative sources of news through an independent press.
It was also during this time that the Press and Publications Ordinance collected under one law a number of excessive regulatory measures and punitive concepts that had previously existed in different laws and were now applied heavily to control the press.
This press law PPO endured for 25 years before being repealed in September In Decemberwhen the break-up of Pakistan and the birth of Bangladesh occurred, General Yahya Khan handed over power to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as President and Pakistan's first civilian Chief Martial Law Administrator who continued to use martial law up to April when an interim constitution was adopted, prior to the enactment of a new constitution by the National Assembly in August Bhutto, however, reacting to criticism by various members of the press, imprisoned editors and publishers on the pretext of national security.
The next five years, from torepresented the beginnings of democracy; however, they were marred by repressive actions toward the press. The new constitution, although formulated on the principles of democracy, human rights, and freedom of speech, did not deliver on these promises.
Furthermore, through coercion and manipulation, the government insured that the only other news agency in the country aside from the government-owned APPthe Pakistan Press International PPIwas brought under its authority. InGeneral Zia ul Haq ousted Bhutto from the prime minister position and once again imposed martial law under which abuse of journalists became public rather than covert. Journalists were flogged in public at Zia's whim.
Although martial law usually ends with a Supreme Court-imposed deadline by which elections must be held, Zia was given no such deadline, and his time in office up to August had a deleterious effect on the mass media. Not one single law or regulation of any progressive character was created during Zia's rule. The only positive outcome of Zia's rule was the restoration of the news agency PPI to its original shareholders.
InPrime Minister Mohammad Khan Junejo was elected to the National Assembly, based on nonparty elections, and lifted martial law in December Even though Junejo was a more democratic political figure, the PPO remained in place under him, and he relied on the old media laws. This arrangement only lasted 11 weeks as Haq was killed in a suspicious plane crash in August This incident resulted in the Chairman of the Senate, Mr.
Ghulam Ishaq Khan, succeeding to the office of President as per the constitution. A caretaker government provided transition to a full-fledged democracy, which included repealing the press law that had coerced the media for so long.
A new law, known as the Registration of Printing Presses and Publications Ordinance came into effect in A key change in this law made it mandatory for the District Magistrate to issue a receipt to an applicant for the issuance of a declaration for the keeping of a printing press or the publication of a journal to provide the applicant with proof that would help avoid government interference.
The most significant change made in the press law of was the removal of power from the government and the right of an applicant to be heard in person by the authority before any punitive action was taken, like the closure of a press. Appeals were also now allowed. In addition, newspapers were no longer obligated to publish in full the press notes issued by the government. For a variety of reasons, the press law of continued to be re-promulgated as an ordinance througheven though the Supreme Court ruled such re-promulgation unconstitutional.
One key reason for this was the recurring demands by representative bodies of the press to revise the law even further to remove any executive power to control the press. The November elections saw Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, the first Muslim woman prime minister of the world, assume office. She brought with her a new phase of liberalism toward the mass media laws and regulations.
For example, Bhutto's government allowed government-controlled radio and television to provide daily and well-balanced coverage of the speeches and statements of its opposition in news bulletins and current affairs programs. Because the print media reaches such a small percentage of the population, this change had a significant impact on the pubic, but was returned to the old, one-sided coverage after only four months because of pressure on Bhutto by her party, the Pakistan People's Party.
The independent press grew stronger during this phase; the Urdu press and the English press, as well as the regional language press, such as Sindh language newspapers, showed a new energy in reporting the news and in analyzing the issues of the day. In addition, new technology and use of computers and desktop publishing allowed a more timely and in-depth reporting of the news. Bhutto also ended the manipulative government practice of using newsprint as a means of controlling the press.
Specifically, the Ministry of Information no longer required issuance of permits to import newsprint and allowed a free and open system of importing newsprint at market prices. InPresident Ishaq Khan dismissed Bhutto's government, charging them with misconduct, and declared a state of emergency. Bhutto and her party lost the October elections, and the new prime minister, Nawaz Sharif, took over.
For reasons not apparent to the public, Sharif restored the issuance of permits system for news-print import. The charges against Bhutto were resolved, and after a bitter campaign, the PPP was returned to power in Octoberand Bhutto was again named prime minister. She was ousted again in amid charges of corruption, a caretaker government was installed, and Sharif defeated Bhutto in the February elections.
In Sharif's two and one-half years in power, he used many heavy-handed methods to deal with journalists who dared to criticize his government. He put tremendous pressure on independent journalists, using both covert and overt means of retribution. His Pakistan Muslim League party PML achieved a landslide electoral victory in the National Assembly, which made Sharif believe he had been given a "heavy mandate" to rule the country as he saw fit.
He was able to cast aside all democratic checks on his power, except for the press. In the end, the press survived whereas Sharif did not.
The press, in fact, through its wide reporting of Sharif's abuse of power, prepared the Pakistani people for General Pervez Musharraf's military coup on October 12, In May Musharraf's regime was strengthened by a unanimous decision by the Supreme Court to validate the October coup as having been necessary; at the same time the Court announced that the Chief Executive should name a date not later than 90 days before the expiry of the three-year period from October 12, for the holding of elections to the National Assembly, the provincial assemblies, and the Senate.
In Pakistan today a cooperative effort appears to be underway between Musharraf's government and the journalism community. In general, Musharraf's administration seems to follow a more liberal policy towards the press with fewer restrictions and much less manipulation.
However, reports vary widely. Whereas the Pakistan Press Foundation PPF reported continued harassment of and dangers to journalists, some journalists currently working for Pakistani newspapers offer another version of the situation. Khaliq, assistant editor for Business Recorderreported that "the press, by and large, is not faced with any coercion or abuse under Musharraf.
Special visas are required if long stays are intended. Pakistan rarely grants visas to Indian journalists or journalists of Indian origin. The presence of foreign journalists in Pakistan has intensified with the United States' search for Osama bin Laden after the terrorist attacks of September 11, Pakistan's proximity to Afghanistan provides the media with a base from which to operate as they report the news to the world.
The killing of American journalist Daniel Pearl by extremists in Pakistan brought much unwanted attention to Musharraf's government, and the United States has urged Pakistan's government to place a ban on the publications of as many as 22 magazines that serve as propaganda machines of the different religious and Jihadi organizations, which appear from Karachi, Lahore and Muzaffarabad. The ban is the extension of measures set by the United Nations Security Council Sanction Committee and the United States government against the terrorist individuals and entities.
Foreign Ownership of Domestic Media Previous press laws included provisions restricting foreign ownership in the press. The law specified that a non-citizen of Pakistan could hold shares in any newspaper only with the previous approval of the government and only if such participation in ownership did not exceed 25 percent of the entire proprietary interest. Information on foreign ownership provisions in the proposed new press laws is unavailable. Domestic Contacts with International Press Organizations International press organizations are very active in Pakistan, especially in terms of monitoring the freedom of the press.
The Pakistan Press Foundation, for example, is a nonprofit media research, documentation and training center committed to promoting freedom of the press in Pakistan and internationally. The International Press Institute, a global network of editors, media executives, and leading journalists dedicated to the freedom of the press and improving the standards and practices of journalism, not only sponsors the annual World Press Freedom Day but also provides a World Press Freedom Review on journalism in Pakistan and the other member countries.
This organization was instrumental in sponsoring various seminars on World Press Freedom Day that allowed national debate and focus on the proposed new Press Council and press laws. A third organization, Committee to Protect Journalists, is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization dedicated to the global defense of press freedom. This organization publishes special reports such as its publication of "Pakistan: The Press for Change.
APP is both the government's own news agency and the official carrier of international wire service stories to the local media. The launching of a Web site by APP enables readers to browse and download the latest news. The news service is now directly fed into the computers of the subscribers simultaneously throughout Pakistan and overseas. The other primary news agency in Pakistan is the PPI, a private independent news agency.
Several other news agencies have also emerged in recent years, some funded by political groups. The few small privately owned wire services are circumspect in their coverage of sensitive domestic news and tend to follow a government line. All are located in the capital of Islamabad. The government owns and operates the bulk of radio and television stations through its two official broadcast bureaucracies, the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation and Pakistan Television.
Domestic news coverage and public affairs programming on these broadcast media are closely controlled by the government and traditionally have reflected strongly the views of the party in power. Television reaches 86 percent of the population covering only However, the network censors segments that can be considered socially and sexually offensive by Pakistani standards, and the government censors morally objectionable advertising.
All stations must use news bulletins produced by Pakistan Television. The greatest impact on broadcasting so far has been the introduction and popularity of satellite dishes. Radio reaches almost percent of the population. Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation broadcasts its external service to 70 countries in 15 languages. Each station broadcasts local news and interests. The majority of the programs pertain to music 48 percentreligion Ingovernment grants, advertisements 11 percentand licensing fees 2.
The decreasing trend in advertising created an increased dependence on the government for funds. The government is also a major shareholder in the private station, Shalimar Recording. The foundation regularly organizes workshops and seminars on important issues facing Pakistani media.
Along with imparting basic training to rural journalists, the training program aims to raise awareness of rural journalists about their rights and responsibilities.pakistani media reaction india russia friendship pak media on pm modi russia visit 2018 latest today
Pakistan Press Foundation's training activities also include the Rural Journalists Skills Development Program that focuses sessions on press freedom, rights of journalists and journalistic ethics. Plans are underway in the s to create training courses to improve the efficiency of information officers and later to open those courses to the media community.
In addition, reference libraries are planned for Karachi and, later, research cells at all information centers in the provinces so that news people would have easy access to background materials in their areas of operation.
In addition, accreditation cards would be issued to working journalists to help them perform their duties; these would be issued according to accreditation laws and the opinion of accreditation committees.