Fats and Oils - Chemistry LibreTexts
Nutrition - Lipids (fats and oils): Another form in which some plants store energy be needed to replace the small amount of protein lost by the body through urine, Similar relationships occur among organic nutrients and originate for several. Lipids that are important to our discussion include fats and oils (triglycerides or Cholesterol frequently exists in foods and body tissues esterified to one fatty acid . Nevertheless, appreciation of the relationship of diet to serum cholesterol. the body. The two types of triglycerides are fats and oils. Both lipids and fats are types of molecules found in the animal body. Correlation.
A typical fatty acid contains 12—18 carbons, though some may have as few as 4 or as many as To make a fat molecule, the hydroxyl groups on the glycerol backbone react with the carboxyl groups of fatty acids in a dehydration synthesis reaction.
Lipids (article) | Macromolecules | Khan Academy
Triglycerides may contain three identical fatty acid tails, or three different fatty acid tails with different lengths or patterns of double bonds. Synthesis of a tryacylglycerol molecule from a glycerol backbone and three fatty acid chains, with the release of three molecules of water. Image modified from OpenStax Biology.
Fat molecules are also called triacylglycerols, or, in bloodwork done by your doctor, triglycerides. While many fatty acids are found in fat molecules, some are also free in the body, and they are considered a type of lipid in their own right.
All About Lipids – Fats and Oils
Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids As shown in the example above, the three fatty acid tails of a triglyceride need not be identical to each other.
Fatty acid chains may differ in length, as well as in their degree of unsaturation. If there are only single bonds between neighboring carbons in the hydrocarbon chain, a fatty acid is said to be saturated.
The thing that fatty acids are saturated with is hydrogen; in a saturated fat, as many hydrogen atoms as possible are attached to the carbon skeleton. When the hydrocarbon chain has a double bond, the fatty acid is said to be unsaturated, as it now has fewer hydrogens. The double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids, like other types of double bonds, can exist in either a cis or a trans configuration.
In the cis configuration, the two hydrogens associated with the bond are on the same side, while in a trans configuration, they are on opposite sides see below.
A cis double bond generates a kink or bend in the fatty acid, a feature that has important consequences for the behavior of fats. Saturated fatty acid example: Unsaturated fatty acid examples: Saturated fatty acids tails are straight, so fat molecules with fully saturated tails can pack tightly against one another.
This tight packing results in fats that are solid at room temperature have a relatively high melting point. In contrast, cis-unsaturated fatty acid tails are bent due to the cis double bond. This makes it hard for fat molecules with one or more cis-unsaturated fatty acid tails to pack tightly. So, fats with unsaturated tails tend to be liquid at room temperature have a relatively low melting point — they are what we commonly call oils. For instance, olive oil is mostly made up of unsaturated fats 2 2.
Trans fats are rare in nature, but are readily produced in an industrial procedure called partial hydrogenation. In this process, hydrogen gas is passed through oils made mostly of cis-unsaturated fatsconverting some — but not all — of the double bonds to single bonds. Trans-unsaturated fatty acids can pack more tightly and are more likely to be solid at room temperature. Partial hydrogenation and trans fats might seem like a good way to get a butter-like substance at oil-like prices.
Unfortunately, trans fats have turned out to have very negative effects on human health. Because of a strong link between trans fats and coronary heart disease, the U. Food and Drug Administration FDA recently issued a ban on trans fats in foods, with a three-year deadline for companies to remove trans fats from their products 4 4.
Fats and oils
Omega fatty acids Another class of fatty acids that deserves mention includes the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. There are different types of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, but all of them are made from two basic precursor forms: Some fish, such as salmon, and some seeds, such as chia and flax, are good sources of omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids have at least two cis-unsaturated bonds, which gives them a curved shape.
Omega-6 fatty acids are defined analogously, with the first double bond located between the sixth and seventh carbons from the omega end. Image of alpha-linoleic acid ALAshowing its curled shape due to its three cis double bonds. Strictly speaking, however, fats are solid at room temperature, while oils are liquid.
They provide your body with fatty acids, which play key metabolic and structural roles in physiology. Classification Fatty acids are the building blocks of fats and oils. They fall into three broad categories: Saturated fatty acids are usually found in such animal products as butter, milk, yogurt, cheese, mayonnaise, cream and meats, as well as limited plant foods, including palm and coconut oils.
The University of Maryland Medical Center recommends limiting their intake because of their role in increasing bad cholesterol.Fats - Types Of Fats - What Is Saturated Fat - What Is Unsaturated Fat - Omega 3's And Omega 6"s
In contrast, unsaturated fatty acids help reduce blood cholesterol and abound in fish, some vegetables oils, seeds, nuts, soybeans and olives. Trans-fatty acids, which also increase cholesterol levels and the risk of heart diseases primarily occur in margarine and processed foods.
Essential Fatty Acids Two fatty acids, namely linoleic and linolenic acids, are essential, meaning that your body cannot produce them and must therefore get them from your diet. Nuts, olives, avocados and various oils are rich sources. Essential fatty acids play a role in blood coagulation, brain development and the regulation of inflammation in your body. According to biochemist Pamela Champe, Ph.
Deficiencies can lead to liver disorders, reproductive problems, poor vision, memory problems and skin lesions.
Vitamin Absorption Because some nutrients are fat-soluble, you should not eliminate all fats from your diet. For instance, your body needs fats to absorb and transport vitamins A, D, E, K, as well as carotenoids. A lack of fats in your diet can therefore lead to deficiencies, exposing you to health problems. Vitamin D deficiency, for example, can result in bone weakness and deformations, while potential consequences of vitamin A deficiency include anemia, impotence, night blindness, growth retardation and an increased risk of infection.
Energy Supply and Storage Fat is the slowest but most energy-dense macronutrient, supplying 9 calories per gram.