In economics an isocost line shows all combinations of inputs which cost the same total amount The isocost line is combined with the isoquant map to determine the optimal production point at any given level of output. Specifically, the point. Isocost-isoquant analysis: theory of production: The production function: a figure known as an isoquant diagram (Figure 1). In the graph, goldsmith-hours per. Isoquants: An isoquant (equal quantity) is a curve that shows the combinations of certain inputs such as Labor (L) and Capital (K) that will produce a certain.

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Isoquant and Isocost Lines (With Diagram) | Economics

Then an outlay of Rs. That is why, in the case of constant returns to scale, the production function is homogeneous of degree one. To see this, consider an example. A line joining tangency points of isoquants and isocosts with input prices held constant is called the expansion path. But combination S is preferred to combination B, being on the higher portion of isoquant IQ 1. In other words when the quantity of labour is increased by LR and RS, the output declines from to and to In it, two factors capital and labour replace two commodities of consumption.

To explain the law, capital is taken as a fixed factor and labour as a variable factor. The firm is in equilibrium at point P where the isoquant curve is tangent to the isocost line CL.

Explain a firm’s equilibrium with the help of isoquants and isocost line.

Views Read View source View history. The different tax authorities and their functions are outlined below: In fact, in between the units of output,etc. The slope depends on the prices of factors of production and the amount of money which the firm spends on the factors.


All these economies help isoquany increasing the returns to scale more than proportionately. This is known as the stage of diminishing returns.

There are two essential or second order conditions for the equilibrium of jsoquant firm. There being perfect competition, intensive bidding raises wages, rent and interest.

As we move along an isoquant downward to the right, each point on it represents the substitution of labour for capital. For the two production inputs labour and capital, with fixed unit costs of the inputs, the equation of the isocost line is.

The slope of iso cost line indicates the ratio of the factor prices. Increasing returns to scale also result from specialisation and division of labour. Isoquaant arrive at the conclusion that a firm will find it profitable to produce only in the second stage of the law of variable proportions for it will be uneconomical to produce in the regions to the left or right of the ridge lines which form the first stage and the third stage of the law respectively.

On the other hand, combination A is preferred to R, the former being on the higher portion of the isoquant IQ. A profit maximisation firm faces two choices of optimal combination of factors inputs: If izoquant were relatively more expensive, the isocost lines would be steeper in Fig.

The producer must have sufficient capacity to buy necessary factor inputs to be able to reach its desired production level. When the amount of money spent by the firm changes, the isocost line may shift but its slope remains the same.


According to Hibbdon, Economic Rent is the difference between the actual payment to a factor and its supply price You must be logged in to post a comment. Isoquant indicates various combinations of two factors of production which give the same level of output per unit of time.

Isocost – Wikipedia

The dotted segments of an isoquant are the waste- bearing segments. This is an isoquant. In the upper dotted portion, more capital and in the lower dotted portion more labour than necessary is employed. Self-Assessment is a system under which the taxpayer is required to declare the basis of his assessment e. isouqant

An isocost line shows the alternative quantities of two factors viz. Some items of equipment or some activities have a minimum size and cannot be divided into smaller units. Such a situation leads to increasing marginal returns.


The firm also maximises its profits by maximising its output, given its cost outlay and the prices of the two factors. An isoquant shows the various combination of two inputs that can be used to produce a specific level of output. To treble output, units of both factors are trebled. On the other hand, where these ridge lines cut the isoquants, the marginal product of the inputs is zero.

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