Drugs and Alcohol Ireland - Dynamics of the drug-crime relationship. - Drugs and Alcohol
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They write that there are differences between drug use and crime based on age and that different drugs seem to matter for different types of crime within a certain age group. One of the most replicated findings about crime is that it tends to be concentrated in the younger segments of the population. This has led researchers to the concept of the age-crime curve, which suggests that crime escalates in the early teens, peaks around age and steadily declines in the early 20s.
Despite the overwhelming evidence in favor of the age-crime curve, there appear to be nuances in the relationship between age and crime that have not been fully explored. The biggest of these is whether the pattern of the age-crime curve holds true for all different types of crime.
Drug use is an example of a crime category that does not match up perfectly with the well-known age and crime pattern. While most drug statistics show that drug use tends to match the age-crime curve with use usually beginning during the teenage years, other drug crimes such as possession and sale tend to peak in the early 30s. There is a congruence between the shock models for both genes and memes, but a huge difference between them in the gradual scenario.
Concretely I just assumed that the only people in the gradual scenario who spoke the language of the source population would be the migrants themselves. All of their children would speak the target population language. More abstractly I am implying here that the change in language frequency has some non-linear response dynamics, at a minimum. By this, I mean that what language you speak is a function of the peer groups your parents place you in, as well as their own maintenance of their original language.
In the shock scenario none of this may hold. The migrants are a huge proportion of the population in the initial generation and subsequent generation of migration. Coexisting Lifestyles - mix 'n match One of the most important complexity findings is that multiple equivalent optima are possible in a typical complex system. This contrasts with the "I'm right, you're wrong" dualisms common to the first 5 vMemes the 6th thinks nobody is 'right' - except themselves!
To comprehend that all these vMemes are possible and even necessary within a complex environment requires tolerance and flexibility as well as understanding.
Only when we get to 2nd tier worldviews vMemes 7 to 9 does the tolerance emerge that allows for such coexistence, and engenders the ability to choose which vMeme is appropriate under which circumstance. Here we start with yellow, and with developing personal tolerance. Once this is in place then we can look to turquoise to obtain group and social tolerance, and finally in coral try to educate other less tolerant groups such as cultural fundamentalists in such a way as to help them develop their level towards 2nd tier worldviews, to transcend the limitations of earlier views without losing what they see valuable about them.
In other words the old attractors still exist and can still be used where necessary, but we have added many more options and some may prove to be better optima for dealing with old problems.
Plants arise soft and delicate; When they die they are withered and dry. Thus, the hard and stiff are disciples of death; The soft and flexible are disciples of life. Many of the world's problems stem from the fact that people use inappropriate and inflexible terminology to describe their current problems, for example in many cases today 'war' metaphors are used when the situation is not a conflict based one e.
The language we employ is a vital clue to the vMeme we are basing our evaluation upon, and poor words constrain or canalize our options considerably, too restricted a vMeme greatly reduces the complexity of the situation and cannot achieve optimum fitness - in just the same way as choosing too restricted a valuation method reduces the information bits in our holarchic meta-ethicsdisvaluing the situation by losing relevant values.
Choosing the right vMeme for any situation relies upon our having a good knowledge of their strengths and weaknesses - just as choosing the right tool for a job needs us to understand the capabilities of each of our many tools. Integrating Multiple Worldviews - a toolbox approach Given that a complex system has many levels of structure and values, then to treat each of these optimally may well require a different technique. Thus for example we would not rely on 'politics' [on the First Floor in our analogy picture - note however that the colours here are arbitrary] to cook our food but we would employ the skills of 'cookery' [on the Ground Floor].
The same applies to the use of vMemes. If we are in a survival situation then the instinctive beige vMeme option of fight or flee may still be the most effective - one cannot reason with a 'tiger'! Each new vMeme level however does give us additional options, better ways of doing some old things and ways to achieve new things for example at purple we can cooperate to capture the tiger, at orange put it into a circus, and at green we may choose to release it back into the wild somewhere else.
Thus our options will increase with personal development, just as they do if we purchase new tools for our toolbox - especially power tools which achieve the same things but quicker and better analogous to 2nd tier vMemes. It seems clear that the more tools that we have the better, after all we don't have to use them all the time, just keep them handy for times of need. This analogy means that new tools don't replace old ones unless they are better versions of the same toolthey augment them, and this is just the way vMemes behave, they augment our experience, they add new options for both old and new problems.
Note however that these vMemes run vertically up through our store, there is a presence from each of the vMemes on each floor of our store i. What this means is that if we study one of these department store specialisms, for example agriculture, from a political perspective e. Using any tool is a interaction or synergy between a living entity and an inanimate object, which enhances the fitness of the former.
This sort of synergy between human and tool can also be achieved by cooperating with other humans, and this of course was the original drive for the emergence of the purple vMeme. However interactions can take 4 forms in complex interacting systems CIS and only one of these CES benefits both parties. This win-win is potentially associated with the vMemes for materialistic, humanistic, systemic and holarchic behaviours, but in practice in many cases, these vMemes are 'contaminated' by biases from other vMemes, especially the influence of egocentric red on materialistic orange, and the influence of authoritarian blue on humanistic green and vice-versa.
The relationship between drugs and crime differs by age. | USAPP
Self-Stabilizing Perturbation - environmental accommodation "Experience is not what happens to a man. It is what a man does with what happens to him. Firstly, there may already be an attractor relevant to the new situation available from past experience, the system simply then switches behaviour mode to suit as we do when, for example, we change into a swimsuit at the seaside.
Secondly, we can learn from the new experience and adapt our existing attractors to create a new, but similar, one to cope with the new experience. This is what we do when, for example, a new 'pop group' appears, we add a new category for this 'star', and maybe switch our 'allegiance' if we like them better. Thirdly we can learn an entirely new behaviour, like riding a bike or philosophising.
As long as the new skill or knowledge doesn't clash with our existing vMeme then all is well. The fourth option is more disruptive, and that is when a 'rival' idea challenges our entire view of life, i.
We can of course simply deny the claim and go on as normal, or we can investigate in whatever way seems appropriate, e.
The relationship between drugs and crime differs by age.
The result may be a big change to our life, it may alter many of our concepts and beliefs, it may deepen our knowledge and widen our experience, but it need not necessary challenge destructively our basic outlook on life. If we can accommodate in this way then our vMeme self-stabilizes and is retained.
But what if we cannot, in all honesty, deny some contradictory idea? Metasystem Transitions - jumping the mind barrier Spiral Dynamics suggests that the social transition between one vMeme and the next proceeds in four stages.
The first, the 'Alpha Fit' stage, relates to a stable well-adjusted society, where there is a good balance between the collective and individual needs. Environmental changes or internal inconsistency then perturb the system, giving uncertainty and instability. This is the 'Beta Condition', and the 'powers-that-be' respond by trying to suppress the doubts and dissension and return to the 'Alpha Fit' state, but as the difficulties grow this becomes impossible.
We saw the accommodating evolutionary change solution earlier, but where this proves inadequate we enter the 'Gamma Trap', which creates non-zero-sum outcomes. This crisis can go two ways, either the society collapses revolutions may occur or it transforms into a new synergythe 'Delta Surge'.
Here many new options become apparent, new opportunities, and it is a time of optimism, but is still unstable, fragile and self-organizing. Central to such leaps is a change of mindset, a widening of the collective view to encompass these wider values and options.