Art history - Wikipedia
Art is the frame that wraps around the culture of the artist and the viewer. Each of us frame our own perspective of art, based on our cultural. Cambridge Rindge and Latin (CRLS) students are building a special connection to the Harvard Art Museums with the museums' Graduate. Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts; that The current disciplinary gap between art history and the philosophy of art (aesthetics) to answer in historically specific ways, questions such as: What are key features of this .. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.
These scholars began in the s to return to the work of the first generation, particularly to Riegl and his concept of Kunstwollen, and attempted to develop it into a full-blown art-historical methodology.
Sedlmayr, in particular, rejected the minute study of iconography, patronage, and other approaches grounded in historical context, preferring instead to concentrate on the aesthetic qualities of a work of art. As a result, the Second Vienna School gained a reputation for unrestrained and irresponsible formalismand was furthermore colored by Sedlmayr's overt racism and membership in the Nazi party.
Panofsky and iconography[ edit ] Photographer unknown, Aby Warburg c. Together they developed much of the vocabulary that continues to be used in the 21st century by art historians.
Today art historians sometimes use these terms interchangeably. Panofsky, in his early work, also developed the theories of Riegl, but became eventually more preoccupied with iconography, and in particular with the transmission of themes related to classical antiquity in the Middle Ages and Renaissance.
In this respect his interests coincided with those of Warburg, the son of a wealthy family who had assembled an impressive library in Hamburg devoted to the study of the classical tradition in later art and culture. Under Saxl's auspices, this library was developed into a research institute, affiliated with the University of Hamburgwhere Panofsky taught.
Warburg died inand in the s Saxl and Panofsky, both Jewish, were forced to leave Hamburg. Saxl settled in London, bringing Warburg's library with him and establishing the Warburg Institute. Panofsky settled in Princeton at the Institute for Advanced Study. In this respect they were part of an extraordinary influx of German art historians into the English-speaking academy in the s. These scholars were largely responsible for establishing art history as a legitimate field of study in the English-speaking world, and the influence of Panofsky's methodology, in particular, determined the course of American art history for a generation.
Psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud wrote a book on the artist Leonardo da Vinciin which he used Leonardo's paintings to interrogate the artist's psyche and sexual orientation. Freud inferred from his analysis that Leonardo was probably homosexual. Group photo in front of Clark University. One of the best-known psychoanalytic scholars is Laurie Schneider Adams, who wrote a popular textbook, Art Across Time, and a book Art and Psychoanalysis. An unsuspecting turn for the history of art criticism came in when Sigmund Freud published a psychoanalytical interpretation of Michelangelo's Moses titled Der Moses des Michelangelo as one of the first psychology based analyses on a work of art.
For unknown purposes, Freud originally published the article anonymously.
What is the relationship between art and history
Jung and archetypes[ edit ] Carl Jung also applied psychoanalytic theory to art. Jung was a Swiss psychiatristan influential thinker, and founder of analytical psychology. Jung's approach to psychology emphasized understanding the psyche through exploring the worlds of dreamsart, mythologyworld religion and philosophy.
Much of his life's work was spent exploring Eastern and Western philosophy, alchemyastrologysociologyas well as literature and the arts.
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His most notable contributions include his concept of the psychological archetypethe collective unconsciousand his theory of synchronicity. Jung believed that many experiences perceived as coincidence were not merely due to chance but, instead, suggested the manifestation of parallel events or circumstances reflecting this governing dynamic.
His ideas were particularly popular among American Abstract expressionists in the s and s. Jung emphasized the importance of balance and harmony. He cautioned that modern humans rely too heavily on science and logic and would benefit from integrating spirituality and appreciation of the unconscious realm. His work not only triggered analytical work by art historians, but it became an integral part of art-making.
Jackson Pollockfor example, famously created a series of drawings to accompany his psychoanalytic sessions with his Jungian psychoanalyst, Dr. Henderson who later published the drawings in a text devoted to Pollock's sessions realized how powerful the drawings were as a therapeutic tool.
The prominent feminist art historian Griselda Pollock, for example, draws upon psychoanalysis both in her reading into contemporary art and in her rereading of modernist art. Marx and ideology[ edit ] During the midth century, art historians embraced social history by using critical approaches. The goal was to show how art interacts with power structures in society. One critical approach that art historians[ who? Marxist art history attempted to show how art was tied to specific classes, how images contain information about the economy, and how images can make the status quo seem natural ideology.
Various artist did not want to create artwork that everyone was conforming to at the time. These two movements helped other artist to create pieces that were not viewed as traditional art. Some examples of styles that branched off the anti-art movement would be Neo-Dadaism, Surrealism, and Constructivism.
These styles and artist did not want to surrender to traditional ways of art.
This way of thinking provoked political movements such as the Russian Revolution and the communist ideals. This piece of art can be analysed to show the internal troubles Soviet Russia was experiencing at the time. Perhaps the best-known Marxist was Clement Greenbergwho came to prominence during the late s with his essay " Avant-Garde and Kitsch ".
Greenberg further claimed that avant-garde and Modernist art was a means to resist the leveling of culture produced by capitalist propaganda. Greenberg appropriated the German word ' kitsch ' to describe this consumerism, although its connotations have since changed to a more affirmative notion of leftover materials of capitalist culture.
Although he wrote about numerous time periods and themes in art, he is best remembered for his commentary on sculpture from the late Middle Ages and early Renaissanceat which time he saw evidence of capitalism emerging and feudalism declining. He attempted to show how class consciousness was reflected in major art periods. The book was controversial when published during the s since it makes generalizations about entire eras, a strategy now called " vulgar Marxism ".
Werckmeister, David Kunzle, Theodor W. Adorno, and Max Horkheimer. Clark was the first art historian writing from a Marxist perspective to abandon vulgar Marxism. These books focused closely on the political and economic climates in which the art was created.
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Within a decade, scores of papers, articles, and essays sustained a growing momentum, fueled by the Second-wave feminist movementof critical discourse surrounding women's interactions with the arts as both artists and subjects.
In her pioneering essay, Nochlin applies a feminist critical framework to show systematic exclusion of women from art training, arguing that exclusion from practicing art as well as the canonical history of art was the consequence of cultural conditions which curtailed and restricted women from art producing fields. Griselda Pollock is another prominent feminist art historian, whose use of psychoanalytic theory is described above. While feminist art history can focus on any time period and location, much attention has been given to the Modern era.
Some of this scholarship centers on the feminist art movementwhich referred specifically to the experience of women. Often, feminist art history offers a critical "re-reading" of the Western art canon, such as Carol Duncan's re-interpretation of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. Two pioneers of the field are Mary Garrard and Norma Broude. Their anthologies Feminism and Art History: Questioning the Litany, The Expanding Discourse: Feminist Art History After Postmodernism are substantial efforts to bring feminist perspectives into the discourse of art history.
The pair also co-founded the Feminist Art History Conference. Barthes and semiotics[ edit ] As opposed to iconography which seeks to identify meaning, semiotics is concerned with how meaning is created.
In any particular work of art, an interpretation depends on the identification of denoted meaning —the recognition of a visual sign, and the connoted meaning —the instant cultural associations that come with recognition.
The main concern of the semiotic art historian is to come up with ways to navigate and interpret connoted meaning. Schapiro combined this method with the work of Charles Sanders Peirce whose object, sign, and interpretant provided a structure for his approach.
By seeing the Mona Lisa, for example, as something beyond its materiality is to identify it as a sign. It is then recognized as referring to an object outside of itself, a woman, or Mona Lisa. The image does not seem to denote religious meaning and can therefore be assumed to be a portrait. This interpretation leads to a chain of possible interpretations: What significance did she have to him? Or, maybe she is an icon for all of womankind. The artist is supplanted by the viewer as the purveyor of meaning, even to the extent that an interpretation is still valid regardless of whether the creator had intended it.
Mieke Bal argued similarly that meaning does not even exist until the image is observed by the viewer.
It is only after acknowledging this that meaning can become opened up to other possibilities such as feminism or psychoanalysis. Museum studiesincluding the history of museum collecting and display, is now a specialized field of study, as is the history of collecting. New materialism[ edit ] Scientific advances have made possible much more accurate investigation of the materials and techniques used to create works, especially infra-red and x-ray photographic techniques which have allowed many underdrawings of paintings to be seen again.
Proper analysis of pigments used in paint is now possible, which has upset many attributions. It is basically life creation. For exmple art is anything it can be from a pencil to wood. Art is life, the study and creation of life. Culture is li…ke a tradition something you are used to doing What is art and relationship between art and society?
Art is the way in which people choose to express themselves, theirfeelings, for example, or how they see things around them.
Artforms include writing, music, drawing, painting…, dance, etc. The relationship between art and society is a two way process. Artworks often show what the society is going through at thatmoment in time, whether things are peaceful or not, for example, aswell as how individual artists are feeling at the time.
If you were to look at visual art from older eras in time you wouldbe able to see that people in a painting, for instance, aren'tdressed as we are now.
Language used in writing may not be the sameeither. Art is molded by society. It can be repressed or encouraged bygovernments, for example. It can depend on how the people that makeup a society are willing to express themselves.
The relationshipbetween art and society varies all over the world and duringdifferent eras of time. Art has also molded society throughout the ages.Why art is important - Katerina Gregos - TEDxGhent
Images help humansto use their imaginations to reshape and build on their ideas.