Japanese Industrialization and Economic Growth
Pre-industrial society refers to social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution, which occurred from to having more information at hand about the world, allowing knowledge transfer and cultural diffusion between them. Pre-industrial society refers to social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution, which occurred from to having more information at hand about the world, allowing knowledge transfer and cultural diffusion between them. In sociology, rationalization (or rationalisation) is the replacement of traditions, values, and Traditional authorities in rationalized societies also tend to develop a It requires distinguishing between instrumental rationality, which involves all relationships to those of means and ends), and communicative rationality, which.
It built a modern navy and army that could keep the Western powers at bay and establish a protective buffer zone in North East Asia that eventually formed the basis for a burgeoning Japanese empire in Asia and the Pacific. Central government reforms in education, finance and transportation Jettisoning the confederation style government of the Tokugawa era, the new leaders of the new Meiji government fashioned a unitary state with powerful ministries consolidating authority in the capital, Tokyo.
The freshly minted Ministry of Education promoted compulsory primary schooling for the masses and elite university education aimed at deepening engineering and scientific knowledge. The Ministry of Finance created the Bank of Japan inlaying the foundations for a private banking system backed up a lender of last resort. The government began building a steam railroad trunk line girding the four major islands, encouraging private companies to participate in the project.
Not surprisingly, the merchants in Osaka, the merchant capital of Tokugawa Japan, already well versed in proto-industrial production, turned to harnessing steam and coal, investing heavily in integrated spinning and weaving steam-driven textile mills during the s. Diffusion of best-practice agriculture At the same time, the abolition of the three hundred or so feudal fiefs that were the backbone of confederation style-Tokugawa rule and their consolidation into politically weak prefectures, under a strong national government that virtually monopolized taxation authority, gave a strong push to the diffusion of best practice agricultural technique.
The nationwide diffusion of seed varieties developed in the Southwest fiefs of Tokugawa Japan spearheaded a substantial improvement in agricultural productivity especially in the Northeast.
Simultaneously, expansion of agriculture using traditional Japanese technology agriculture and manufacturing using imported Western technology resulted. Balanced growth Growth at the close of the nineteenth century was balanced in the sense that traditional and modern technology using sectors grew at roughly equal rates, and labor — especially young girls recruited out of farm households to labor in the steam using textile mills — flowed back and forth between rural and urban Japan at wages that were roughly equal in industrial and agricultural pursuits.
Between andelectrification mainly due to the proliferation of intercity electrical railroads created economies of scale in the nascent industrial belt facing outward onto the Pacific. Finally, the widening and paving during the s of roads that could handle buses and trucks was also pioneered by the great metropolises of the Tokaido, which further bolstered their relative advantage in per capita infrastructure.
Organizational economies of scale — zaibatsu In addition to geographic scale economies, organizational scale economies also became increasingly important in the late nineteenth centuries.
By the s these had evolved into highly diversified combines, binding together enterprises in banking and insurance, trading companies, mining concerns, textiles, iron and steel plants, and machinery manufactures. By channeling profits from older industries into new lines of activity like electrical machinery manufacturing, the zaibatsu form of organization generated scale economies in finance, trade and manufacturing, drastically reducing information-gathering and transactions costs.
Rationalization (sociology) - Wikipedia
By attracting relatively scare managerial and entrepreneurial talent, the zaibatsu format economized on human resources. Electrification The push into electrical machinery production during the s had a revolutionary impact on manufacturing.
Small enterprises did not mechanize in the steam era. Each machine could be powered up independently of one another. Mechanization spread rapidly to the smallest factory. Emergence of the dualistic economy With the drive into heavy industries — chemicals, iron and steel, machinery — the demand for skilled labor that would flexibly respond to rapid changes in technique soared.
Large firms in these industries began offering premium wages and guarantees of employment in good times and bad as a way of motivating and holding onto valuable workers. A dualistic economy emerged during the s. Small firms, light industry and agriculture offered relatively low wages. Income per head was far higher in the great industrial centers than in the hinterland. Tenants also found their interests disregarded by the national authorities in Tokyo, who were increasingly focused on supplying cheap foodstuffs to the burgeoning industrial belt by promoting agricultural production within the empire that it was assembling through military victories.
Japan secured Taiwan from China inand formally brought Korea under its imperial rule in upon the heels of its successful war against Russia in Tenant unions reacted to this callous disrespect of their needs through violence. The relative decline of the United Kingdom as an economic power doomed a gold standard regime tied to the British pound.
The United States was becoming a potential contender to the United Kingdom as the backer of a gold standard regime but its long history of high tariffs and isolationism deterred it from taking over leadership in promoting global trade openness. Germany and the Soviet Union were increasingly becoming industrial and military giants on the Eurasian land mass committed to ideologies hostile to the liberal democracy championed by the United Kingdom and the United States.
It was against this international backdrop that Japan began aggressively staking out its claim to being the dominant military power in East Asia and the Pacific, thereby bringing it into conflict with the United States and the United Kingdom in the Asian and Pacific theaters after the world slipped into global warfare in As Nakamura points out, a variety of Occupation-sponsored reforms transformed the institutional environment conditioning economic performance in Japan.
The major zaibatsu were liquidated by the Holding Company Liquidation Commission set up under the Occupation they were revamped as keiretsu corporate groups mainly tied together through cross-shareholding of stock in the aftermath of the Occupation ; land reform wiped out landlordism and gave a strong push to agricultural productivity through mechanization of rice cultivation; and collective bargaining, largely illegal under the Peace Preservation Act that was used to suppress union organizing during the interwar period, was given the imprimatur of constitutional legality.
Improvement in the social capability for economic growth In short, from a domestic point of view, the social capability for importing and adapting foreign technology was improved with the reforms in education and the fillip to competition given by the dissolution of the zaibatsu.
Resolving tension between rural and urban Japan through land reform and the establishment of a rice price support program — that guaranteed farmers incomes comparable to blue collar industrial workers — also contributed to the social capacity to absorb foreign technology by suppressing the political divisions between metropolitan and hinterland Japan that plagued the nation during the interwar years.
Japan and the postwar international order The revamped international economic order contributed to the social capability of importing and adapting foreign technology. The instability of the s and s was replaced with replaced with a relatively predictable bipolar world in which the United States and the Soviet Union opposed each other in both geopolitical and ideological arenas.
The United States became an architect of multilateral architecture designed to encourage trade through its sponsorship of the United Nations, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade the predecessor to the World Trade Organization. American companies were encouraged to license technology to Japanese companies in the new international environment.
Japan redirected its trade away from the areas that had been incorporated into the Japanese Empire beforeand towards the huge and expanding American market. Especially striking in the Miracle Growth period was the remarkable increase in the rate of domestic fixed capital formation, the rise in the investment proportion being matched by a rising savings rate whose secular increase — especially that of private household savings — has been well documented and analyzed by Horioka While Japan continued to close the gap in income per capita between itself and the United States after the early s, most scholars believe that large Japanese manufacturing enterprises had by and large become internationally competitive by the early s.
In this sense it can be said that Japan had completed its nine decade long convergence to international competitiveness through industrialization by the early s. MITI There is little doubt that the social capacity to import and adapt foreign technology was vastly improved in the aftermath of the Pacific War. Creating social consensus with Land Reform and agricultural subsidies reduced political divisiveness, extending compulsory education and breaking up the zaibatsu had a positive impact.
There is no doubt that M. By intervening between Japanese firms and foreign companies, it acted as a single buyer of technology, playing off competing American and European enterprises in order to reduce the royalties Japanese concerns had to pay on technology licenses.
By keeping domestic patent periods short, M. And in some cases — the experience of International Business Machines I. How important industrial policy was for Miracle Growth remains controversial, however. The view of Johnsonwho hails industrial policy as a pillar of the Japanese Development State government promoting economic growth through state policies has been criticized and revised by subsequent scholars.
The book by Uriu is a case in point. Fundamentalism A form of religious traditionalism characterized by the literal interpretation of religious texts, a conception of an active supernatural, and clear distinctions between sin and salvation. Game A form of play involving competitive or cooperative interaction in which the outcome is determined by physical skill, strength, strategy, or chance. Gemeinschaft A term used by Tonnies to describe a small, traditional, community-centered society in which people have close, personal, face-to-face relationships and value social relationships as ends in themselves.
Gender The traits and behaviors that are socially designated as "masculine" or "feminine" in a particular society. Gender differences Variations in the social positions, roles, behaviors, attitudes, and personalities of men and women in a society.
Gender gap Differences in the way men and women vote. Gender-role expectations People's beliefs about how men and women should behave. Gender stratification The hierarchical ranking of men and women and their roles in terms of unequal ownership, power, social control, prestige, and social rewards.
Generalized other A general idea of the expectations, attitudes, and values of a group or community. Genocide The destruction of an entire population. Gentrification The movement of middle-class and upper-middle-class persons usually white into lower-income, sometimes minority urban areas.
Gesellschaft A term used by Tonnies to describe an urban industrial society in which people have impersonal, formal, contractual, and specialized relationships and tend to use social relationships as a means to an end. Global economy An economy in which the economic life and health of one nation depends on what happens in other nations. Green revolution The improvement in agricultural production based on higher-yielding grains and increased use of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation.
Groups Collections of people who share some common goals and norms and whose relationships are usually based on interactions. Groupthink The tendency of individuals to follow the ideas or actions of a group. Health maintenance organizations HMOs Organizations that people pay a fee to join in return for access to a range of health services. Heterosexual A person whose preferred partner for erotic, emotional, and sexual interaction is someone of the opposite sex. Hierarchy The arrangement of positions in a rank order, with those below reporting to those above.
Hispanics A general term referring to Spanish-speaking persons. It includes many distinct ethnic groups. Homosexual Someone who is emotionally, erotically, and physically attracted to persons of his or her own sex. Horizontal mobility Movement from one social status to another of about equal rank in the social hierarchy. Horticultural societies Societies in which the cultivation of plants with hoes is the primary means of subsistence. Hospice An organization designed to provide care and comfort for terminally ill persons and their families.
Human-capital explanation The view that the earnings of different workers vary because of differences in their education or experience. Hunting and gathering societies Societies that obtain food by hunting animals, fishing, and gathering fruits, nuts, and grains.
These societies do not plant crops or have domesticated animals.
- Pre-industrial society
Hybrid economy An economic system that blends features of both centrally planned and capitalist market economies. Hyperinflation Anextreme form of inflation. Hypothesis A tentative statement asserting a relationship between one factor and something else based on theory, prior research, or general observation.
Id In Freudian theory, a concept referring to the unconscious instinctual impulses-- for instance, sexual or aggressive impulses. Ideal values Values that people say are important to them, whether or not their behavior supports those values. Identification theories Views suggesting that children learn gender roles by identifying with and copying the same-sex parent.
Ideology A system of ideas that reflects, rationalizes, and defends the interests of those who believe in it. Impression management A term used by Goffman to describe the efforts of individuals to influence how others perceive them.
Incest Sexual intercourse with close family members. Incest taboo The prohibition of sexual intercourse between fathers and daughters, mothers and sons, and brothers and sisters. Income The sum of money wages and salaries earnings plus income other than earnings.
Independent variable The variable whose occurrence or change results in the occurrence or change of another variable; the hypothesized cause of something else. Individualism A belief in individual rights and responsibilities. Induction Reasoning from the particular to the general. Industrialization The shift within a nation's economy from a primarily agricultural base to a manufacturing base.
Industrialized societies Societies that rely on mechanized production, rather than on human or animal labor, as the primary means of subsistence. Inflation An increase in the supply of money in circulation that exceeds the rate of economic growth, making money worth less in relation to the goods and services it can buy. Informal sanction A social reward or punishment that is given informally through social interaction, such as an approving smile or a disapproving frown.
Innovation The discovery or invention of new ideas, things, or methods; a source of cultural change. Instinct A genetically determined behavior triggered by specific conditions or events.SOCIOLOGY - Max Weber
Institution of science The social communities that share certain theories and methods aimed at understanding the physical and social worlds. Institutionalization of science The establishment of careers for practicing scientists in major social institutions. Institutions The patterned and enduring roles, statuses, and norms that have formed around successful strategies for meeting basic social needs. Instrumental A type of role that involves problem-solving or task-oriented behavior in group or interpersonal relationships.
Instrumental leader A group leader whose role is to keep the group's attention directed to the task at hand. Interest group A group of people who work to influence political decisions affecting them. Intergenerational mobility A vertical change of social status from one generation to the next.
Interlocking directorates The practice of overlapping memberships on corporate boards of directors. Intermittent reinforcement In learning theory, the provision of a reward sometimes but not always when a desired behavior is shown. Internalization The process of taking social norms, roles, and values into one's own mind.
Interpretive approach One of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology; focuses on how individuals make sense of the world and react to the symbolic meanings attached to social life.
Intragenerational mobility A vertical change of social status experienced by an individual within his or her own lifetime. Invention An innovation in material or nonmaterial culture, often produced by combining existing cultural elements in new ways; a source of cultural change. IQ intelligence quotient test A standardized set of questions or problems designed to measure verbal and numerical knowledge and reasoning.
Keynesian economics The economic theory advanced by John Maynard Keynes, which holds that government intervention, through deficit spending, may be necessary to maintain high levels of employment. Kinship Socially defined family relationships, including those based on common parentage, marriage, or adoption. Labeling theory A theory of deviance that focuses on the process by which some people are labeled deviant by other people and thus take on deviant identities rather than on the nature of the behavior itself.
Labor-market segmentation The existence of two or more distinct labor markets, one of which is open only to individuals of a particular gender or ethnicity. Laissez-faire economics The economic theory advanced by Adam Smith, which holds that the economic system develops and functions best when left to market forces, without government intervention. Language Spoken or written symbols combined into a system and governed by rules.
Law The system of formalized rules established by political authorities and backed by the power of the state for the purpose of controlling or regulating social behavior. Learning theory In psychology, the theory that specific human behaviors are acquired or forgotten as a result of the rewards or punishments associated with them.
Legal protection The protection of minority-group members through the official policy of a governing unit. Legitimate In reference to power, the sense by people in a situation that those who are exercising power have the right to do so. Lesbian A woman who is emotionally, erotically, and physically attracted to other women. Life chances The probabilities of an individual having access to or failing to have access to various opportunities or difficulties in society. Life course The biological and social sequence of birth, growing up, maturity, aging, and death.
Life-course analysis An examination of the ways in which different stages of life influence socialization and behavior. Life expectancy The average years of life anticipated for people born in a particular year. Life-style Family, child-bearing, and educational attitudes and practices; personal values; type of residence; consumer, political, and civic behavior; religion.
Life table A statistical table that presents the death rate and life expectancy of each of a series of age-sex categories for a particular population.
Line job A job that is part of the central operations of an organization rather than one that provides support services for the operating structure. Lobbying The process of trying to influence political decisions so they will be favorable to one's interests and goals. Location In Kanter's view, a person's position in an organization with respect to having control over decision making. Looking-glass self The sense of self an individual derives from the way others view and treat him or her.
Macro level An analysis of societies that focuses on large-scale institutions, structures, and processes. Magic According to Malinowski, "a practical art consisting of acts which are only means to a definite end expected to follow.
Marriage A social institution that recognizes and approves the sexual union of two or more individuals and includes a set of mutual rights and obligations.
Marriage rate Number of marriages in a year per single women 15 to 44 years old. Marriage squeeze A situation in which the eligible individuals of one sex outnumber the supply of potential marriage partners of the other sex. Marxian approach A theory that uses the ideas of Karl Marx and stresses the importance of class struggle centered around the social relations of economic production. Mass hysteria Widely felt fear and anxiety. Mass media Widely disseminated forms of communication, such as books, magazines, radio, television, and movies.
Matthew effect The social process whereby one advantage an individual has is likely to lead to additional advantages. Mean, arithmetic The sum of a set of mathematical values divided by the number of values; a measure of central tendency in a series of data. Median The number that cuts a distribution of figures in half; a positional measure of central tendency in a series of data.
Medicaid A federal-state matching program that provides medical assistance to certain low income persons.
Medicare A federal health insurance program. Individuals are eligible if they receive Social Security benefits, federal disability benefits, or sometimes if they have end-stage kidney disease.
Method of comparison An approach that compares one subgroup or society with another one for the purpose of understanding social differences. Methodology The rules, principles, and practices that guide the collection of evidence and the conclusions drawn from it.
Metropolitan Statistical Area MSA A geographical area containing either one city with 50, or more residents or an urban area of at least 50, inhabitants and a total population of at leastexcept in New England where the required total is 75, Micro level An analysis of societies that focuses on small-scale process, such as how individuals interact and how they attach meanings to the social actions of others. Migration The relatively permanent movement of people from one area to another.
Millenarian movements Social movements based on the expectation that society will be suddenly transformed through supernatural intervention. Minority group Any recognizable racial, religious, ethnic, or social group that suffers from some disadvantage resulting from the action of a dominant group with higher social status and greater privileges. Mode The value that occurs most often in a series of mathematical values.
Modeling Copying the behavior of admired people. Modernization The economic and social transformation that occurs when a traditional agricultural society becomes highly industrialized.
Monopoly The exclusive control of a particular industry, market, service, or commodity by a single organization. Mores Strongly held social norms, a violation of which causes a sense of moral outrage. Mortality rate The number of deaths per thousand in a population.
Multinational corporation A corporation that locates its operations in a number of nations. Multiple-nuclei theory A theory of urban development holding that cities develop around a number of different centers, each with its own special activities. Nation A relatively autonomous political grouping that usually shares a common language and a particular geography. Nation-state A social organization in which political authority overlaps a cultural and geographical community.
Negative sanctions Actions intended to deter or punish unwanted social behaviors. Negotiation A form of social interaction in which two or more parties in conflict or competition arrive at a mutually satisfactory agreement. Network See Social network. Nomadic Societies that move their residences from place to place.
Nonverbal communication Visual and other meaningful symbols that do not use language. Norm A shared rule about acceptable or unacceptable social behavior. Normal science A term used by Kuhn to describe research based on one or more past scientific achievements that are accepted as a useful foundation for further study.
Nuclear family A family form consisting of a married couple and their children. Objectivity Procedures researchers follow to minimize distortions in observation or interpretation due to personal or social values. Occupation A position in the world of work that involves specialized knowledge and activities. Occupational segregation The concentration of workers by gender or ethnicity into certain jobs but not others. Oligarchy The rule of the many by the few. Oligopoly The control of a particular industry, market, service, or commodity by a few large organizations.
Open system In organizational theory, the degree to which an organization is open to and dependent on its environment. Operationalization In research, the actual procedures or operations conducted to measure a variable. Opportunity In an organization, the potential that a particular position contains for the expansion of work responsibilities and rewards.
Organization A social group deliberately formed to pursue certain values and goals. Organizational ritualism A form of behavior in organizations, particularly in bureaucracies, in which people follow the rules and regulations so closely that they forget the purpose of those rules and regulations. Organizational waste The inefficient use of ideas, expertise, money, or material in an organization. Panic A frightened response by an aggregate of people to an immediate threat.
Paradigm In the sociology of science, a coherent tradition of scientific law, theory, and assumptions that forms a distinct approach to problems. Parallel marriage When husband and wife both work and share household tasks. Participant observation A research method in which the researcher does observation while taking part in the activities of the social group being studied.
Pastoral societies Societies in which the raising and herding of animals such as sheep, goats, and cows is the primary means of subsistence. Patriarchal family A form of family organization in which the father is the formal head of the family. Peer group Friends and associates of about the same age and social status. Play Spontaneous activity undertaken freely for its own sake yet governed by rules and often characterized by an element of make-believe.
Pluralism In ethnic relations, the condition that exists when both majority and minority groups value their distinct cultural identities, and at the same time seek economic and political unity. In political sociology, the view that society is composed of competing interest groups, with power diffused among them. Political economy model A theory of land use that emphasizes the role of political and economic interests.
Political order The institutionalized system of acquiring and exercising power. Political party An organized group of people that seeks to control or influence political decisions through legal means. Population In demography, all the people living in a given geographic area. In research, the total number of cases with a particular characteristic. Population exclusion The efforts of a society to prevent ethnically different groups from joining it.
Population transfer The efforts of a dominant ethnic group to move or remove members of a minority ethnic group from a particular area. Positive sanctions Rewards for socially desired behavior. Positivist An approach to explaining human action that does not take into account the individual's interpretation of the situation.
Postindustrial society A term used by Daniel Bell to refer to societies organized around knowledge and planning rather than around industrial production. Power The capacity of an individual group to control or influence the behavior of others, even in the face of opposition. Power elite According to Mills, a closely connected group of the corporate rich, political leaders, and military commanders who decide most key social and political issues.
Prejudice A "prejudged" unfavorable attitude toward the members of a particular group, who are assumed to possess negative traits. Prestige A social recognition, respect, and deference accorded individuals or groups based on their social status.
Primary deviance Deviant behavior that is invisible to others, short- lived, or unimportant, and therefore does not contribute to the public labeling of an individual as being deviant.
Primary economic sector The sector of an economy in which natural resources are gathered or extracted. Primary group A social group characterized by frequent face-to-face interaction, the commitment and emotional ties members feel for one another, and relative permanence.
Principle of cumulative advantage A process whereby the positive features of some institutions help to generate further benefits for them. Privatization The tendency of families in industrial societies to turn away from the community and workplace toward a primary focus on privacy, domesticity, and intimacy. Processes of socialization Those interactions that convey to persons being socialized how they are to speak, behave, think, and feel.
Pre-industrial society - Wikipedia
Profession AIR occupation that rests on a theoretical body of knowledge and thus requires specialized training usually recognized by the granting of a degree or credential. Projection A psychological process of attributing ones own unacceptable feelings or desires to other people to avoid guilt and self-blame.
Property The rights and obligations a group or individual has in relation to an object, resource, or activity. Proposition A statement about how variables are related to each other. Prostitution The selling of sexual favors. Race A classification of humans into groups based on distinguishable physical characteristics that may form the basis for significant social identities.
Racism The institutionalized domination of one racial group by another. Random sample A sample of units drawn from a larger population in such a way that every unit has a known and equal chance of being selected. Range The total spread of values in a set of figures. Rank Place in a social hierarchy. Rank differentiation See Differentiation, rank. Rape A completed sexual assault by a male, usually upon a female, although sometimes upon another male.
Rate of natural increase The difference between birth and death rates, excluding immigration. Rationalization The process of subjecting social relationships to calculation and administration.
Real values The values people consider truly important, as evident in their behavior and how they spend their time and money. Rebellion In anomie theory, a form of deviance that occurs when individuals reject culturally valued means and goals and substitute new means and goals. In political sociology, the expression of opposition to an established authority.
Reference group A social group whose standards and opinions are used by an individual to help define or evaluate beliefs, values, and behaviors. Reform movement A type of social movement that accepts the status quo but seeks certain specific social reforms. Regressive movement A type of social movement whose aim is to move the social world back to where members believe it was at an earlier time. Relative poverty The condition of having much less income than the average person in society, even if one can afford the necessities of life.
Religion A set of shared beliefs and rituals common to a special community and focusing on the sacred and supernatural. Religious movement An organized religious group with the primary goal of changing existing religious institutions. Research design The specific plan for conducting a research study, including sampling, measurement, and data analysis. Resocialization The process of socializing people away from a group or activity in which they are involved. Resource mobilization theory The theory that social movements are affected by their ability to marshal various key resources.
Retreatism In anomie theory, a form of deviance that occurs when individuals abandon culturally valued means and goals. Revolution A large-scale change in the political leadership of a society and the restructuring of major features of that society. Revolutionary movement A type of social movement whose aim is to reorganize existing society completely. Riot A destructive and sometimes violent collective outburst. Rising expectations A situation in which people feel that past hardships should not have to be suffered in the future.
Ritual In the sociology of religion, the rules of conduct concerning behavior in the presence of the sacred. Intended to produce feelings of reverence, awe, and group identity. Ritualism In anomie theory, a form of deviance in which individuals lose sight of socially valued goals but conform closely to socially prescribed means. Rival hypothesis An explanation that competes with the original hypothesis in a study.
Role To functionalists, the culturally prescribed and socially patterned behaviors associated with particular social positions. For interactionists, the effort to mesh the demands of a social position with one's own identity.
Role accumulation Adding more statuses and roles to the ones an individual already has. Role conflict A situation in which two or more social roles make incompatible demands on a person. Role exit The process of leaving a role that is central to one's identity and building an identity in a new role while also taking into account one's prior role. Role expectations Commonly shared norms about how a person is supposed to behave in a particular role.
Role performance The behaviors of a person performing a certain social role. Role set The cluster of roles that accompanies a particular status. Rowdyism Generalized interpersonal violence or property destruction occurring at spectator events. Ruling class A small class that controls the means of economic production and dominates political decisions. Rumor A report that is passed informally from one person to another without firm evidence. Sample survey A systematic method of collecting information from respondents, using personal interviews or written questionnaires.
Sanction A social reward or punishment for approved or disapproved behavior; can be positive or negative, formal or informal. Scapegoating Blaming a convenient but innocent person or group for one's trouble or guilt.
Science An approach used to obtain reliable knowledge about the physical and social worlds, based on systematic empirical observations; the knowledge so obtained. Scientific productivity Making new discoveries, confirming or disconfirming theoretical hypotheses through experimentation and other types of research, and publishing the results of that research.
Scientific revolution The dramatic overthrow of one intellectual paradigm by another. Secondary deviance Behavior discovered by others and publicly labeled by them as deviant.
Secondary economic sector The sector of an economy in which raw materials are turned into manufactured goods. Secondary group A social group bound together for the accomplishment of common tasks, with few emotional ties among members.
Sect An exclusive, highly cohesive group of ascetic religious believers. Sects usually last longer and are more institutionalized than cults. Sector theory A theory of urban development explaining that cities develop in wedge-shaped patterns following transportation systems. Secularization The erosion of belief in the supernatural. Includes a growing respect for rationality, cultural and religious pluralism, tolerance of moral ambiguity, faith in education, and belief in civil rights, the rule of law, and due process.
Self-fulfilling prophecy A belief or prediction about a person or situation that influences that person or situation in such a way that the belief or prediction comes true.
Sex The biological distinction of being male or female. Sibling A brother or sister. Social categories Groups of people who may not interact but who share certain social characteristics or statuses. Social change A modification or transformation in the way society is organized. Social construction of reality The process of socially creating definitions of situations so that they appear to be natural. Social control The relatively patterned and systematic ways in which society guides and restrains individual behaviors so that people act in predictable and desirable ways.
Social forces The social structures and culture individuals face in a society. Social inequality The existence of unequal opportunities or rewards for people in different social positions. Social interaction The ways people behave in relation to one another by means of language, gestures, and symbols. Socialist societies Societies in which productive resources are owned and controlled by the state rather than by individuals.
Socialization The process of preparing newcomers to become members of an existing social group by helping them to learn the attitudes and behaviors that are considered appropriate. Social learning theory A form of learning theory suggesting that people learn through observation and imitation, even though they are not rewarded or punished for certain behaviors.
Social mobility The movement from one status to another within a stratified society.