Download a PDF of "Technology and Economics" by the National Academy of Engineering for free. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine ground for this ongoing dialogue between engineers and economists . investing in productivity growth, the relationship between technology and the cost. The first, by James Adams and Zvi Griliches (2), examined how the relationship between academic research expenditures and scientific. Source: Science and Engineering Indicators—, Appendix. Tables and 8- 5. Simply put, a produc- tion function represents the relationship between.
Capital itself must be divided into two different categories, equity capital and debt capital. Equity capital is money already at the disposal of the business, and mainly derived from profit, and therefore is not of much concern, as it has no owners that demand its return with interest.
Debt capital does indeed have owners, and they require that its usage be returned with "profit", otherwise known as interest. The interest to be paid by the business is going to be an expense, while the capital lenders will take interest as a profit, which may confuse the situation. To add to this, each will change the income tax position of the participants.
Interplay of Economics and the Role of Engineering and Technology | OMICS International
Interest and money time relationships come into play when the capital required to complete a project must be either borrowed or derived from reserves. To borrow brings about the question of interest and value created by the completion of the project. While taking capital from reserves also denies its usage on other projects that may yield more results.
Interest in the simplest terms is defined by the multiplication of the principle, the units of time, and the interest rate.Why Engineers Should Learn Economics!!! Fully Explained -- Top Reasons
The complexity of interest calculations, however, becomes much higher as factors such as compounding interest or annuities come into play.
Depreciation and valuation[ edit ] The fact that assets and material in the real world eventually wear down, and thence break, is a situation that must be accounted for.
Interplay of Economics and the Role of Engineering and Technology
Depreciation itself is defined by the decreasing of value of any given asset, though some exceptions do exist. Valuation can be considered the basis for depreciation in a basic sense, as any decrease in value would be based on an original value.
The idea and existence of depreciation becomes especially relevant to engineering and project management is the fact that capital equipment and assets used in operations will slowly decrease in worth, which will also coincide with an increase in the likelihood of machine failure.
Hence the recording and calculation of depreciation is important for two major reasons. To give an estimate of "recovery capital" that has been put back into the property. To enable depreciation to be charged against profits that, like other costs, can be used for income taxation purposes. Both of these reasons, however, cannot make up for the "fleeting" nature of depreciation, which make direct analysis somewhat difficult. To further add to the issues associated with depreciation, it must be broken down into three separate types, each having intricate calculations and implications.
Normal depreciation, due to physical or functional losses.
Price depreciation, due to changes in market value. Depletion, due to the use of all available resources.
Relations of Science, Technology, and Economics Under Capitalism, and in the Soviet Union
Due to technological up gradation in the modern economies, there has been increase in employment, reduction in poverty, and growth of Human Capital, which have together triggered the economic growth of the modern economies, as concluded from my research.
Role of Innovations in the Growth of Modern Economies In this rapidly changing world, innovation has played a major role in economic growth and development of the modern economies. During the last few decades, there have been many innovations in the field of economics, both at the micro and macro levels of study. These innovations have contributed to the economic growth of the modern economies and will have a greater role to play in the years to come [ 1 ].
The various laws and theories formulated by economists have played an important role in economic growth. These laws and theories have given a more scientific temperament to the modern economists, enabling them to think more logically and analytically.
- Engineering economics
The development of various laws and theories in economics, both at the micro and macro level like the Laws of Demand and Supply, concepts of Production Functions, Market, Equilibrium, theories of Producer and Consumer Behavior etc [ 2 ].
These have helped the consumers to maximize their satisfaction, the producers to maximize their profits, and the society to maximize its social welfare.
Innovations in the field of economics at the macro level like the theory of National Income, Government Budget, Banking, Aggregate Demand and Supply etc.
Technology and Economics | The National Academies Press
Innovations in Engineering and Technology Though innovations in the field of economics have directly contributed to the growth and development of the modern economies, the rapid innovations in the field of Engineering and Technology have also contributed a lot in the economic growth and development of the modern economies [ 3 ]. Rapid innovations in the field on Engineering and Technology have helped increase the production capacity and efficiency of the modern economies, at the same time, minimizing the cost of production.
This has led to an increase in production activities in the modern economies. As the production of high quality products has increased, consequently the market supply also has increased.
Consumption of products like Computers, Mobile Phones etc. The processes of Globalization, Privatization and Liberalization are now common to most modern economies. This is the result of rapid innovations in the field of technology which have made the world a global market, and have thereby induced economic growth of the modern economies. The developments of Patents, Formation of Cartels, and Research and Development in the fields of technology are the catalysts culminating the economic growth of the modern economies.
Though Capital Accumulation also plays a role in growth and development, the primary driving force is not Capital Accumulation.