Soviet Union–United States relations - Wikipedia
Feb 19, , Cold War Begins, The struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union for domination in certain sectors and parts of the world is. United States Relations with Russia: The Cold War. established in the Eastern European countries occupied by Soviet troops during the war transformed into. and find homework help for other Cold War questions at eNotes. After World War II, relations between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R rapidly deteriorated.
The Soviets would also not soon forget that their demand for a second front in the west during World War II, had been denied for two years of severe losses before the Allied invasion took place in For its part, the United States had used altruistic rhetoric to explain its war objectives.
Self-determination for all people was one of the cornerstones. While conceding the expected Soviet hegemony over the countries on its western border, at the Yalta Conference in February where the Cold War supposedly beganthe United States was able only to extract promises that pluralistic governments would be allowed there. Greece was in the middle of a civil war and Turkey needed assistance with modernizing its society. Concerned that both countries could fall into the Soviet sphere of influence, undersecretary of state Dean Acheson presented an idea in a meeting with Congress that would later become known as the Domino Theory.
His notion was that when one nation falls to communism, neighboring states are weakened and eventually fall themselves. The Truman Doctrine enunciated its support of U. At no time, except perhaps during the Cuban Missile Crisisdid the Cold War bring the world so close to direct hostilities between the major powers. Although Acheson had suggested early inthat Korea lay outside the defense periphery of the United States, the invasion of South Korea by the North in June was too blatant to be ignored.
Assuming the invasion had taken place with the knowledge and support of the Soviet Union and China, the United States responded forcefully.
The Korean War was fought to an eventual draw by United Nations forces, of whom the majority were American troops. When the Soviets exploded their own atomic bomb inthe United States embarked on a crash program to produce the exponentially more powerful H-bomb, against strong opposition from one of its creators J.
Robert Oppenheimer and chairman of the U. Atomic Energy Commission David Lillienthal.
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However, within a year of the first American H-bomb test, the Soviets exploded one of their own. Nevertheless, the United States continued to hold a wide numerical advantage in nuclear weapons throughout the s, producing technically superior weapons with the aid of advances in computers, while the Eastern bloc produced a larger number of many types of weapons.
For the next decade, both nations continually produced more nuclear weapons and more sophisticated missiles to deliver them. By the late s, with the development of MIRVs multiple independently targeted reentry vehiclesthe weapons race had provided each side with "overkill.
The treaty defined two categories of nations: Nuclear nations were those who had already tested the atomic bomb, and non-nuclear nations were all others.
Non-nuclear nations that sign the treaty are obligated to open their non-weaponry nuclear facilities to inspection by the International Atomic Energy Agency and to agree to safeguards that will guarantee that nuclear technology and materials are not diverted to military uses. The nuclear nations agree not to assist non-nuclear nations in the development of nuclear weapons.
At the last moment, a compromise, which included the removal of offensive nuclear weapons from both Cuba and U. The talks took place in two phases: That agreement called for peaceful co-existence, the avoidance of military confrontations, and no claims of spheres of influence. The war had been undertaken to demonstrate that the United States would not permit any more countries to be "lost" to communism and was generally popular for its first years, but after the failure of the Tet Offensive in earlypublic opinion in the United States shifted.
Nixon hoped for an exit that would preserve its client state in South Vietnam, but eventually, the United States withdrew and was obliged to watch helplessly as North Vietnamese forces overran Saigon in The United States believed that the Soviet Union had agreed to a worldwide standoff, while the Soviets considered it their obligation to continue to support revolutions anywhere in the world against what they regarded as oppression.
The s and s saw an epidemic of popular films that horrified moviegoers with depictions of nuclear devastation and mutant creatures.
In the United States, space was seen as the next frontier, a logical extension of the grand American tradition of exploration, and it was crucial not to lose too much ground to the Soviets.
Cold War | Causes, Facts, & Summary | artsocial.info
In addition, this demonstration of the overwhelming power of the R-7 missile—seemingly capable of delivering a nuclear warhead into U. Inthe U. Army under the direction of rocket scientist Wernher von Braun, and what came to be known as the Space Race was underway. That same year, President Dwight Eisenhower signed a public order creating the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAa federal agency dedicated to space exploration, as well as several programs seeking to exploit the military potential of space.
Still, the Soviets were one step ahead, launching the first man into space in April Kennedy made the bold public claim that the U.
Soviet Union–United States relations
Soviets, in turn, were pictured as the ultimate villains, with their massive, relentless efforts to surpass America and prove the power of the communist system. The committee began a series of hearings designed to show that communist subversion in the United States was alive and well. In HollywoodHUAC forced hundreds of people who worked in the movie industry to renounce left-wing political beliefs and testify against one another.
More than people lost their jobs. Soon, other anticommunist politicians, most notably Senator Joseph McCarthyexpanded this probe to include anyone who worked in the federal government. Thousands of federal employees were investigated, fired and even prosecuted. The Cold War Abroad The fight against subversion at home mirrored a growing concern with the Soviet threat abroad.
Many American officials feared this was the first step in a communist campaign to take over the world and deemed that nonintervention was not an option. Truman sent the American military into Korea, but the war dragged to a stalemate and ended in Other international disputes followed. In the early s, President Kennedy faced a number of troubling situations in his own hemisphere.
However, what was intended to be a brief military action spiraled into a year conflict. The Close of the Cold War Almost as soon as he took office, President Richard Nixon began to implement a new approach to international relations. To that end, he encouraged the United Nations to recognize the communist Chinese government and, after a trip there inbegan to establish diplomatic relations with Beijing.