Basic Religious Beliefs and Personality Traits
Such feelings may range from negative literature which demonstrates positive effects of religious beliefs on beliefs and practices contribute substantially to. Also some studies identified particular spiritual risk factors such as feeling of anger . Finally, the relationship between basic religious beliefs and neuroticism was found to The psychology of religion and coping: Theory, research, practice . Religious practices and feelings” don't do much. They are, simply, things that people do to make themselves feel better. But they don't.
The questionnaire was returned immediately to the researcher once it was completed.
A copy of this survey is in Appendix A. Five additional demographic items were used besides the usual ones i. Three items included measures of self religious affiliation and parents' religious affiliation; choices included the major religions of the world. Two other items included the type of school attended before entering college; be it religious, private, home, combination, or other. Religious or Spiritual Practice Measures. Rated on a 5 point Likert scale, five 5 items regarding religious or spiritual practice were used.
Three of them included measures of self e. Religious or Spiritual Involvement Measures. Rated on a 5 point Likert scale ranging from 'not at all' to 'to a great extent', eight 8 items measuring exposure, openness, and involvement in religious or spiritual related topics were used. Two of those items regarded exposure to different spiritual or religious beliefs and practices e. Three items measuring religious or spiritual openness e. Religious or Spiritual Belief Measures.
Rated on a 5 point Likert scale, eight 8 items were used that referred to spiritual or religious belief; development e. Please check one' were measured. Religious or Spiritual Change Measures. Two 2 items measuring spiritual or religious change were used. One item is related to change of view e.
Procedures A survey was constructed by the researcher. After the construction of the survey, it was field tested among peers in a classroom and critiqued. Minor revisions were made and the questionnaire was sent to the Institutional Review Board of the university.
The survey was considered exempt and authorization for its administration was given. A convenience sample of participants was used. Participants were approached during lab hours at the university and were asked if they would agree to participate and take the survey which would only take about ten minutes of their time.
Every one of the students that were approached agreed to participate. A small percent of the participants selected themselves into the sample by approaching the researcher and asking for a survey. The rest of the were administered the survey during class the first ten minutes of one of their classes.
The sample size was determined due to sample size on previous experiments at the university. A consent form was attached to all surveys with the following included given blank lines for initials and date, contact information for researcher and mentor, advance that participation was voluntary and would not affect their grade in that particular class, and that they were free to withdraw at any time.
Refer to Appendix for copy of survey.
Introduction: The Study of Religion and Emotion - Oxford Handbooks
Results To test the hypothesis that college seniors will be more spiritual than freshman, a one way ANOVA of year in college freshman, sophomore, junior, senior by level of spirituality was performed.
Planned post hoc testing LSD Pairwise tests indicated some unexpected results that were not hypothesized. To test the hypothesis that first year students, as opposed to seniors, will have the same religious background as their parents, especially if the parents practice the same religions, a Pearson's Correlation Coefficient of students freshman, sophomore, junior, senior religion to mother's and father's religion was performed.
Next, a Pearson's Correlation Coefficient of first year students to mothers' religion and fathers' religion was performed. To test the hypothesis that religious practice, during college years, declines, a one way ANOVA of level of church attendance by year in college was performed.
Chapter 1: Religious Beliefs and Practices | Pew Research Center
Discussion In conclusion, religion and spirituality are an important and basic part of people's lives. They contribute much to who we are and how we behave. Spirituality and religion also show how our species evolves through time and perhaps even through space. With a study as simple as this one, much is shown in relation to the evolution and variance in behavior of college age students as the years pass in regards to religion and spirituality.
The first hypothesis of college seniors being more spiritual than freshman is supported by showing a trend that seniors actually are more spiritual than freshman.
Post hoc testing showed, however, that freshman and sophomores were significantly less spiritual than seniors.
U.S. Religious Landscape Survey: Religious Beliefs and Practices
This, perhaps, indicates that because students, for example, are exposed to different cultures, become busy with full schedules, begin a much more dedicated social life, spend years living away from home, and many other reasons, they become somewhat less religious and much more spiritual. Spirituality thus becomes more important in their lives because it is an intimate relationship with God or a higher power in which they can directly associate or communicate with Him at any time without necessarily separating a specific time to visit a church or group gatherings.
The second hypothesis of first year students, as opposed to seniors, having the same religious background as their parents, especially if the parents practice the same religions was supported significantly with very strong correlations.
The first correlation that was run of overall students to parents indicated that there was a strong correlation between mothers' religion and students' religion and no correlation between fathers' religion and students' religion.
This seems to suggest that because children spend much more time at home with their mothers and are raised and taught perhaps more by the mothers than by the fathers, the children inherit or adopt the religion that their mother practices.
The second correlation was run between freshman students and parents' religion; it indicated that freshman did have a high correlation between their religion and their parents' religions. Perhaps, the results suggest that there are a larger percent of freshman students whose religion is highly correlated with that of their parents.
The third correlation which was run between senior students and parents' religion indicated that there was no correlation between students' religion and parents' religion.
The hypothesis was supported indicating that perhaps, as students leave home and spend years in college, they begin to lose the religious background they were raised with. The third hypothesis that religious practice, during college years, declines was not supported. Results indicated that there was a non significant F and that sophomores practiced their religion significantly less than freshman and juniors.
This might suggest that first year students come into college with a certain religion and as they begin to be exposed to other religious cultures they question themselves and their faith during the second year in college. Later, during their junior year, they perhaps pick up once again the same or a different religion that they can practice. As with many other studies, a limitation of the current study is that there was a small convenience sample of only participants. This might greatly influence the results of the study and might not be indicative of the population of the university; some results might be skewed.
Also, the survey was created by the researcher which indicates that it might not be an accurate measure of the hypotheses proposed. In addition, it might be better and perhaps more realistic to create a bigger study encompassing many universities from around the country with sample sizes that are indicative of each of the populations. Furthermore, the survey could be revised or a more accurate measure created. Moreover, further research could focus on many different aspects of religion and spirituality during college years such as gender, cultural background, race, religious background, etc.
What the current study implies is, seemingly, simply and plainly that students begin to deviate from their religious background as they enter college because of many reasons related to their new life such as the separation from their parents, college social life, exposure to different cultures and beliefs, courses that challenge their faith, and so on.
It seems as though students become much more spiritual than religious as they reach their senior year in college. It is also suggested that the religion students come into college with changes when they reach the senior year.
Perhaps, the results found in this study only have to do with McKendree University or possibly, it is norm throughout the universities all around the country. That is a question that can be answered only with further research. Faith and Reason on Campus. Liberal Education, Boeree, C. Ohio, United States of America. The Psyche and the Self: Existential humanistic psychotherapy and the religious person: Religions and the clinical practice of psychology.
God, Buber and the practice of gestalt therapy. Biblically based chiristian spirituality and Adlerian psychotherapy.
Emotions and Religion
Journal of Individual Psychology. Crossing the line between therapy and religion. Counseling and Psychotherapy With Religious Persons: Religious Cognitive — Emotional Therapy. Paper presented at The 5th congress for psychotherapy Beijing, China; Cognitive-behavioral therapy and the religions person: Religion and the Clinical Practice of Psychology.
Richards S, Bergin AE. A Spiritual Strategy for Counseling and Psychotherapy. American Psychological Association; Relationships between religiosity,spirituality, and personality: Personality and Individual Differences. Maltby J, Day L. Spiritual involvement and belief: Personality and Individuals Differences.
Does spirituality represent the sixth factor of personality? Psychological Assessment Resources; Normal Personality Assessment in clinical practice: Tarbiat Modarres university; Personality traits in adolescence as predictors of religiousness in early adulthood: Findings from the Terman Longitudinal Study. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. Religion, self — regulation, and self — Control: Associations, Explanations, and Implications. Religion and the five factors of personality: For most religious traditions, however, there are only small differences in the importance of religion across different levels of education.
Even among those who are not affiliated with a particular religious group, seven-in-ten say they believe in God or a universal spirit. There are also differences in the way members of different religious traditions conceive of God. This holds true for most religious traditions with the exception of Mormons, Buddhists and Hindus, where men and women profess roughly the same levels of absolute belief in a personal God.
Older Americans are considerably more likely than younger Americans to profess certain belief in a personal God. In other traditions, however — especially members of evangelical, mainline and historically black Protestant churches — young people are about as likely as their older counterparts to express certain belief in a personal God. Overall, Americans with a college education tend to be slightly less likely to believe with certainty in a personal God compared with those without a degree.
But the opposite is true among members of evangelical churches, where those with a college degree are more likely than those with a high school degree or less to profess certain belief in a personal God. This is also true, though to a lesser extent, among Catholics and members of historically black churches.
Scripture There is considerable variance in the approach religious groups adopt toward their sacred texts. In fact, majorities or pluralities of these groups say their sacred texts are written by men and do not constitute the word of God.
Although large majorities of all Christian traditions say the Bible is the word of God, the extent to which they say it should be taken literally varies widely. But the unaffiliated tend to be less certain about this belief than members of most other religious traditions.
However, only about a quarter are absolutely certain about this belief. Miracles and the Supernatural The Landscape Survey finds that belief in miracles and supernatural phenomena are widespread among U.
Less than half of Buddhists and Hindus, and less than a quarter of Jews, say angels and demons are active in the world. Attendance at Religious Services and Demographic Groups Women in several Christian traditions are more likely than men to attend religious services at least once a week, with the largest gap existing among members of historically black churches.
Among Muslims, however, men are much more likely to attend services weekly, and among Mormons, Jews and the unaffiliated, the figures are roughly equal.
Older Americans are more likely than younger Americans to say they attend services at least once a week. There are similar, though somewhat less pronounced, generational differences among all three Protestant traditions.
Notable exceptions to this pattern are Mormons, Jews and Muslims, among whom younger individuals are at least as likely as their older counterparts to say they attend religious services on a weekly basis. Among the general adult population, there are no substantial differences in attendance at worship services by education.
But within certain Christian traditions, including members of evangelical, mainline and historically black Protestant churches as well as Mormons, those with more education tend to attend church somewhat more often than those with less education.
Members of non-Christian religions tend to be less likely than Christians to report official membership in a house of worship. These findings could indicate that a sizable number of people who say they have no particular religious affiliation have family members who belong to a religious congregation. Alternatively, it could indicate that many who do not identify with a particular religion nevertheless belong to a religious congregation. Size of Congregation Among U.