Entity Relationship Modeling Examples - Learning MySQL [Book]
There are two reasons to create a database diagram. You're either designing a new schema or you need to document your. An entity relationship model, also called an entity-relationship (ER) diagram, is a graphical representation of entities (which will become your. Entity Relationship Modeling Examples Earlier in this chapter, we showed you how to design a database and understand an Entity Relationship (ER) diagram.
Each track is on exactly one album.
Each track has a time length, measured in seconds. When a track is played, the date and time the playback began to the nearest second should be recorded; this is used for reporting when a track was last played, as well as the number of times music by an artist, from an album, or a track has been played.
Conversely, each play is associated with one track, a track is on one album, and an album is by one artist. The attributes are straightforward: The track entity has a time attribute to store the duration, and the played entity has a timestamp to store when the track was played. If you wanted to use the music database in practice, then you might consider adding the following features: Support for compilations or various-artists albums, where each track may be by a different artist and may then have its own associated album-like details such as a recording date and time.
Under this model, the album would be a strong entity, with many-to-many relationships between artists and albums. Playlists, a user-controlled collection of tracks. For example, you might create a playlist of your favorite tracks from an artist. Track ratings, to record your opinion on how good a track is.
What is Entity Relationship Diagram? Webopedia Definition
Source details, such as when you bought an album, what media it came on, how much you paid, and so on. Album details, such as when and where it was recorded, the producer and label, the band members or sidemen who played on the album, and even its artwork. Smarter track management, such as modeling that allows the same track to appear on many albums. The University Database The university database stores details about university students, courses, the semester a student took a particular course and his mark and grade if he completed itand what degree program each student is enrolled in.
We explain the requirements next and discuss their shortcomings at the end of this section. Consider the following requirements list: The university offers one or more programs. A program is made up of one or more courses.DBMS: How to draw ER diagram & Relational schema eg. company database
A student must enroll in a program. A student takes the courses that are part of her program. A program has a name, a program identifier, the total credit points required to graduate, and the year it commenced.
A course has a name, a course identifier, a credit point value, and the year it commenced. Students have one or more given names, a surname, a student identifier, a date of birth, and the year they first enrolled. When he finishes the course, a grade such as A or B and a mark such as 60 percent are recorded. Each course in a program is sequenced into a year for example, year 1 and a semester for example, semester 1. Although it is compact, the diagram uses some advanced features, including relationships that have attributes and two many-to-many relationships.
The ER diagram of the university database In our design: Each student must be enrolled in a program, so the Student entity participates totally in the many-to-one EnrollsIn relationship with Program.
ER Model - Basic Concepts
A program can exist without having any enrolled students, so it participates partially in this relationship. As a weak entity, Course participates totally in the many-to-one identifying relationship with its owning Program.
This relationship has Year and Semester attributes that identify its sequence position. Student and Course are related through the many-to-many Attempts relationships; a course can exist without a student, and a student can be enrolled without attempting any courses, so the participation is not total. When a student attempts a course, there are attributes to capture the Year and Semester, and the Mark and Grade. For a real university, many more aspects would need to be captured by the database.
The airline has one or more airplanes. An airplane has a model number, a unique registration number, and the capacity to take one or more passengers. An airplane flight has a unique flight number, a departure airport, a destination airport, a departure date and time, and an arrival date and time. The issue derives its name from the way the model looks when it's drawn in an entity—relationship diagram: This type of model looks similar to a star schemaa type of model used in data warehouses.
- entity-relationship diagram (model)
- Learning MySQL by Hugh E. Williams, Saied M.M. Tahaghoghi
When trying to calculate sums over aggregates using standard SQL over the master table, unexpected and incorrect results. The solution is to either adjust the model or the SQL. This issue occurs mostly in databases for decision support systems, and software that queries such systems sometimes includes specific methods for handling this issue. The second issue is a 'chasm trap'. A chasm trap occurs when a model suggests the existence of a relationship between entity types, but the pathway does not exist between certain entity occurrences.
For example, a Building has one-or-more Rooms, that hold zero-or-more Computers. One would expect to be able to query the model to see all the Computers in the Building. However, Computers not currently assigned to a Room because they are under repair or somewhere else are not shown on the list. Another relation between Building and Computers is needed to capture all the computers in the building.
This last modelling issue is the result of a failure to capture all the relationships that exist in the real world in the model. See Entity-Relationship Modelling 2 for details. Entity—relationships and semantic modeling[ edit ] Semantic model[ edit ] A semantic model is a model of concepts, it is sometimes called a "platform independent model". It is an intensional model. At the latest since Carnapit is well known that: The first part comprises the embedding of a concept in the world of concepts as a whole, i.
The second part establishes the referential meaning of the concept, i. Extension model[ edit ] An extensional model is one that maps to the elements of a particular methodology or technology, and is thus a "platform specific model".
ER Model Basic Concepts
The UML specification explicitly states that associations in class models are extensional and this is in fact self-evident by considering the extensive array of additional "adornments" provided by the specification over and above those provided by any of the prior candidate "semantic modelling languages".
It incorporates some of the important semantic information about the real world. Plato himself associates knowledge with the apprehension of unchanging Forms The forms, according to Socrates, are roughly speaking archetypes or abstract representations of the many types of things, and properties and their relationships to one another.
Limitations[ edit ] ER assume information content that can readily be represented in a relational database.