Dutch people - Wikipedia
In the s, French and Dutch settlers in North America took a very different the trading. The Dutch settlers initially had very good relations with the Indians. One of the directors of the West India Company (WIC), Johannes de Laet, was a geographer . French, Dutch, and English explorers began to make inroads into the Americans in efforts—fostered especially good relationships with native peoples as they.
French traders learned the Algonquian language and married native women and had children with them so that they could be considered part of the family.
They even allied with Native American Tribes against their own enemies and went to war with them as in the case in when French explorer Samuel de Champlain helped Algonquians in their war against the Iroquois. And like New France, New Netherland situated as it was in this very good harbor, the Island of Manhattan, was likewise very focused on trade.
In fact, New Amsterdam was a little bit of a company town controlled by the Dutch West India Company which sought to make the most of all of the goodies that could be brought from North America and then shipped to Europe.
In fact, you can get a sense of what the major concerns of the Europeans settling in this area were from this map.
The Dutch and the Indians | Native American Netroots
You can see that they point out where beavers, turkeys, foxes, and bears can be found all with their valuable pelts, but you also see that there's an extremely detailed rendering of where many Native American Tribes lived like this detailed rendering of what I believe is a Mahican village.
The French and Dutch bothered to learn all of these names and map all of this territory because they cooperated with the Native Americans to get these pelts. It's hard to imagine a Spanish map that would go into such detail about native villages.
It's important to remember that Europeans were competing with each other for resources in the New World hoping that they could secure the best trade deals for furs with Native Americans and prevent other nations from securing those furs. For example, the Dutch allied with the Iroquois in the New World as trading partners because the Iroquois were the long-time enemies of the Algonquians who were allied with the French.
So just as the Europeans recruited Native Americans into their competitions to supply Europe with furs, Native Americans recruited Europeans into their inter-tribal feuds to supply the Americas with European goods.
I wanna finish by just briefly comparing each nation's colonial goals with their outcomes and what sorts of people settled, what the relationships were like with Native Americans, and even how they attempted or didn't attempt to convert Native Americans to a form of Christianity.
French and Dutch colonization
Now, as we saw with Spain, their goal was to quickly extract natural resources from the Americas and to set up plantations for tobacco and later sugar, plus to convert as many of the native people to Catholicism as possible by force if necessary and it was frequently necessary. Consequently, most of the Spanish settlers who came to the New World were men and adventurers who treated native people with violence and enslaved them in the encomienda system and in some cases had relationships with native women and African women that resulted in that very complex set of racial designations we see in the caste system.
But France and the Netherlands by contrast came for trade. They wanted furs and fish and so they were very careful to cultivate very friendly relationships with Native Americans including by intermarrying with them in a deliberate and formal way so that they could take advantage of having natives do the hunting for them rather than having to do it themselves so that really only a few men came to New France and New Netherland, nothing like the numbers of Spain.
And unlike the Spanish, although the French did attempt to convert natives to Catholicism, they rarely did so by force.
Now, going forward as we talk about British colonization in the next few lessons, I want you to keep both the Spanish and the French and Dutch modes of colonization in your mind so you can compare and contrast English colonization with both of them.
Indigenous populations declined over the seventeenth century as epidemics brought by the Spanish killed large numbers of natives.
Instead of enslaving Native Americans in farming and mining operations, the French exploited existing inter-tribal alliances and rivalries to establish trade relationships with the Huron, Montagnais, and Algonquins along the St.
Lawrence River and further inland toward the Great Lakes. These Native Americans competed for exclusive status as intermediaries between other Indian traders and the French.
Dutch & Native American Relations in the s | Synonym
Although Native Americans did most of the work, tracking, trapping, and skinning the animals and transporting the pelts to French traders, they drove hard bargains for their furs. French traders exchanged textiles, weapons, and metal goods for the furs of animals such as beavers, bears, and wolves. The trade strengthened traditional clan leaders' positions by allowing them to distribute these trade goods to their clan members as they saw fit.
Jesuit Catholic missionaries managed to convert considerable numbers of Huron because the priests learned the local languages and exhibited bravery in the face of danger. French officials offered additional incentive for conversion by allowing Christian Hurons to purchase French muskets. In the eighteenth century, the Dutch and English competed with the French for trade and territory, which gave local Indians continued economic, diplomatic, and military leverage as Europeans competed for their trade and military alliances through the seventeenth century.
Unlike the French and Spanish, the Dutch did not emphasize religious conversion in their relationships with Native Americans. They established a fur trade alliance with the Iroquois confederacy, the most powerful Native American empire in 17th-century North America.
Although smallpox and other European diseases drastically reduced the Iroquois population, the confederation remained strong because they negotiated an advantageous alliance with the Dutch.
Dutch weapons helped the Iroquois to defeat the Huron, who were leaders of the other major pan-Indian confederacy in the area.
The New World: A Stage for Cultural Interaction
As often as possible, Native Americans took advantage of rivalries among European powers to maintain or enhance their own political and economic positions. The Iroquois quickly signed an alliance and trade treaty with the English. However, they also maintained friendly relations with the French and welcomed Jesuit missionaries into their midst.
- Dutch & Native American Relations in the 1600s
- French and Dutch exploration in the New World
- The Dutch and the Indians
The Iroquois were generally successful at playing the French and English off one another until the English drove the French out of North America at the end of the French and Indian War For more information Axtell, James. The Cultural Origins of North America.